Bile salts (bile acids) are the most important organic components in Galle. The liver transports the active bile acids in the smallest bile ducts (canaliculi), which are formed by the apical membrane segments of adjacent hepatocytes. The canalicular transport determines the rate of bile formation. Once secreted, the bile salts pass through osmosis other bile compounds (in particular sodium and water) into the canaliculi. Bile salts are also biological detergents that allow the body cholesterol and potentially toxic substances (eg. B. bilirubin, drug metabolites) excrete. The function of the bile salts in the duodenum is to make the recorded fats and fat-soluble vitamins soluble and thus facilitate their digestion and absorption. From the liver, the collected bile flows into the right or left hepatic duct and then into the common hepatic duct (DHC).

The liver produces 500 to 600 ml of bile every day. Bile is isosmotic with the plasma and is v. a. of water and electrolytes, but also from organic compounds such as bile salts, phospholipids (mainly lecithin), cholesterol, bilirubin, and other endogenously produced or absorbed compounds such. For example, proteins that regulate gastrointestinal function, drugs and their metabolites. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of heme compounds from the degraded red blood cells and is the pigment that gives bile its yellow-green color. Bile salts (bile acids) are the most important organic components in Galle. The liver transports the active bile acids in the smallest bile ducts (canaliculi), which are formed by the apical membrane segments of adjacent hepatocytes. The canalicular transport determines the rate of bile formation. Once secreted, the bile salts pass through osmosis other bile compounds (in particular sodium and water) into the canaliculi. Bile salts are also biological detergents that allow the body cholesterol and potentially toxic substances (eg. B. bilirubin, drug metabolites) excrete. The function of the bile salts in the duodenum is to make the recorded fats and fat-soluble vitamins soluble and thus facilitate their digestion and absorption. From the liver, the collected bile flows into the right or left hepatic duct and then into the common hepatic duct (DHC). Fasting about 75% of the bile comes from the DHC over the cystic duct into the gallbladder. The remainder flows directly into the common bile duct (the common bile duct, formed by the intersection of the common passage and the liver Zysticus) in the duodenum. Fasting gallbladder absorbs up to 90% of the water from the bile. So the bile is concentrated and stores. View of the liver and gallbladder bile emptying from the gall bladder into the common bile duct, this leads, together with the pancreatic duct in the ampulla of Vater (papilla) and drained into the duodenum. Before the bile duct connects to the pancreatic duct, it tapers to about ? 0.6 cm. The Oddi muscle, which includes both the pancreatic duct and common bile duct, has a sphincter for each channel. Normally, bile can not flow retrograde into the pancreatic duct. The sphincter are very sensitive to cholecystokinin and other intestinal hormones (such. As gastrin-releasing peptide) and to changes in cholinergic tone (eg., By anticholinergics) When eating gut hormones are released and stimulates cholinergic nerves, causing the gallbladder to contract stimulates and leads to the relaxation of the sphincter of Oddi. Thus, the gallbladder empties 50 to 75% of its contents into the duodenum. On the other hand fasting an increase in sphincter tone causes the filling of the gallbladder. Bile salts are poorly absorbed in the proximal part of the small intestine by passive diffusion, the essential part of bile salts reach the terminal ileum, where about 90% are actively absorbed into the portal circulation. In the liver, bile salts are extracted very effective metabolized (z. B. conjugated when they arrive in the free form) and back into the bile secreted. In this way, from the liver to the bile to the liver, the so-called. Enterohepatic circulation, the bile salts circulate about 10 to 12 times a day. Most diseases of the biliary tract arising from gallstones, although akalkuläre Gallen pain occur without gallstones and postcholecystectomy syndrome occurs after the gallbladder itself was removed. Gallstones in the gallbladder (cholelithiasis) are usually asymptomatic. The bile flow can be blocked by gall stones in the bile ducts (choledocholithiasis), which triggers a biliary colic or an inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) gives. The cholecystitis can be acute, develop over hours or chronic that exists for a long time. Blockage of the bile ducts can cause (acute cholangitis) also cause inflammation of the bile ducts that comes usually with a bacterial infection. The bile flow can be blocked or slowed down (so-called. Cholestasis) may be by tumors or in patients with AIDS by strictures due to opportunistic infections (AIDS-cholangiopathy). Cholestasis may also cause inflammation, fibrosis and strictures of the biliary tract (so-called. Sclerosing cholangitis) lead. In general, the cause of the sclerosing cholangitis is unknown (so-called. Primary sclerosing cholangitis).

Health Life Media Team

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