Cerebral angiography After injection of a radiopaque contrast agent through a catheter intraarterial, individual cerebral arteries and venous structures are represented in the brain with radiographs. With digital subtraction angiography (DSA) can provide small amounts of contrast images with high resolution. Cerebral angiography supports CT and MRI in the exact representation of the location and the vascular nature of intracranial lesions; she was the gold standard in the diagnosis of stenotic or occluded arteries, congenital vascular malformations, aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Vessels having a diameter of up to 0.1 mm can be represented. However, cerebral angiography is used less often since the advent of MRA and CT angiography. It is still used routinely for suspected. cerebral vasculitis and when angiographic intervention (eg. as angioplasty, stent implantation, intra-arterial thrombolysis, aneurysm obliteration) are required. Duplex sonography This non-invasive examination method dissection, stenosis, closures and ulceration of the carotid bifurcation can prove. It is safe and fast, but does not provide the detailed resolution angiography. It is preferable periorbital Doppler sonography and Okuloplethysmographie to examine patients with transient ischemic attacks in the carotid artery. It is useful for monitoring the course of a finding. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography helps in the detection of a residual blood flow in brain death, vasospasm discovered the middle cerebral artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage and vertebrobasilar insults. Echoencephalography An ultrasound examination can be performed at the bedside in order (usually in the neonatal intensive care) to recognize <2 years hemorrhage and hydrocephalus in children. The CT has replaced the echoencephalography in older children and adults. After a myelography (water-soluble nonionic) contrast agent was injected into the subarachnoid space by lumbar puncture, radiographs are made. MRI has replaced myelography for the diagnosis of intraspinal processes, but the CT myelography will be carried out if no MRI is available. The contraindications are the same as for a lumbar puncture. Myelography may enhance the effects of spinal cord compression, especially if too much cerebrospinal fluid is withdrawn too quickly. Rarely myelography leads to inflammation of the arachnoid membranes around the spinal nerves (arachnoiditis), chronic pain and discomfort in the lower back and can cause in the extremities.

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