Keratoconjunctivitis sicca for a detailed description of dry eye. The disease is most frequently associated with idiopathic or advanced age. But tissue diseases may be the cause (eg. As Sjogren’s syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus). Eye discharge secretion is often accompanied by a red eye (red eye) and newborn (neonatal conjunctivitis) is generally caused by an allergic or infectious conjunctivitis, blepharitis and in infants by ophthalmia. When a bacterial infection, such as staphylococcal conjunctivitis or gonorrhea, the secretion can be infectious and purulent. Less common causes include Dakryozystitis and canaliculitis. The diagnosis is made clinically in general. An allergic conjunctivitis can usually be differentiated from an infectious disease by the prevalence of itching, vaginal discharge and clear the presence of other allergic symptoms (eg. As nose, sneezing). The clinical distinction between viral and bacterial conjunctivitis is difficult. Cultures are usually not created, but are indicated in patients with the following Symtpomen: Clinical suspicion of gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis Severe symptoms immunodeficiency A vulnerable eye (eg after a corneal transplant, in a exophthalmos due to Graves’ disease.) Ineffective initial therapy halos halos (rings to light) can be caused by cataracts, diseases which lead to corneal edema (eg. B. acute angle-closure glaucoma, or diseases that cause bullous keratopathy), corneal opacity or Mukusauflagerung and by drugs such as digoxin or chloroquine. Blue shades Certain conditions such as cataract removal or the use of sildenafil can cause a blue tint of the visual field (cyanopsia). Cyanopsia can inhibitors occur for a few days after cataract removal or as a side effect of sildenafil and possibly other phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5). Scotomas scotomas are visual field defects and are differentiated in Negative scotomas (blind spots) Positive scotomas (light points or flickering light flashes) Negative scotomas may remain from the patient unnoticed until they include central portions and significantly limit the visual acuity; the appeal is mostly to a reduced visual acuity (Acute loss of vision). Negative scotoma have several causes, which can be differentiated by the specific nature of the visual field loss sometimes. This can be obtained by the use of a tangent screen, by a Goldmann Perimetry or an automated computer-perimetry (in which the field of view is constructed detailed on the basis of the patient’s responses to a series of light flashes in various fields, which is controlled by a standard computer program ) be identified. Positive scotomas represent a response to an abnormal stimulation in parts of the visual system, such as is the case with migraine.