Approximately 13,000 people in the US diagnosed annually at a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors and significance of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor increases. Symptoms include sore throat and painful and / or difficulty in swallowing. Treatment is with radiation, chemotherapy, or both, but a primary surgery has become increasingly popular. The survival rate is much higher for HPV-positive patients.

The oropharyngeal squamous refers to cancer of the tonsils, the base and the back third of the tongue, the soft palate and the rear and side wall of the pharynx. Squamous comprises more than 95% of Oropharynxkarzinoms.

Approximately 13,000 people in the US diagnosed annually at a oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors and significance of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) as a risk factor increases. Symptoms include sore throat and painful and / or difficulty in swallowing. Treatment is with radiation, chemotherapy, or both, but a primary surgery has become increasingly popular. The survival rate is much higher for HPV-positive patients. The oropharyngeal squamous refers to cancer of the tonsils, the base and the back third of the tongue, the soft palate and the rear and side wall of the pharynx. Squamous comprises more than 95% of Oropharynxkarzinoms. In the United States was expected> 13,000 new cases of oropharyngeal year, 2015. Although the incidence of oropharyngeal cancer is increasing, improving his cure rates. Like most head and neck cancers occur oropharyngeal cancer most common in older men with an average age of 63rd The ratio to female is male 2.7: 1st However, patients have recently become younger and more often female with oropharyngeal cancer because HPV infection has emerged as an etiology. to develop an oropharyngeal cancer risk, is in the HPV-positive patients 16 times higher. In Europe and North America of HPV infection for about 70 to 80% of oropharyngeal are responsible. Nevertheless, there remain tobacco and alcohol continue the important risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer. Patients who smoke more than 1.5 packs of cigarettes a day, have an approximately 3-fold increased risk of cancer; and patients who drink four or more drinks a day have an approximately 7-fold increased risk. People who both drink a lot and a lot of smoke, have a 30 times increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer. Symptoms and signs The symptoms of oropharyngeal cancer vary slightly depending on the occurrence location, but usually the patients present with a sore throat, dysphagia, odynophagia, dysarthria and earaches before. An often cystic neck mass is a common symptom of patients, they imagine with oropharyngeal cancer. Since the symptoms of oropharyngeal cancer are the same as the frequent infection of the upper respiratory tract, it often takes until the patient be forwarded to a specialist for many months. Diagnostic laryngoscopy Operative endoscopy and biopsy Imaging tests for staging All patients should be subjected to direct laryngoscopy and biopsy before treatment is initiated in order to assess the primary lesion and to seek secondary primary lesions. In patients with confirmed carcinoma usually a CT of the neck with contrast medium takes place. Most clinicians also perform a PET of the neck and thorax. Prognosis The 5-year survival rate is a total of about 60%. However, the prognosis varies depending on the cause. Patients who are HPV-positive, have a 5-year survival rate of> 75% (and a 3-year survival rate of nearly 90%), while HPV-negative patients have a 5-year survival rate of <50%. Treatment Surgical increasingly transoral laser microsurgery radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy surgery is increasingly being used as the primary treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is increasingly used to excise tumors of the almonds and the tongue base endoscopically, the morbidity of open surgery is avoided. Transoral robotic surgery (GATE) is an increasingly popular method for the treatment of selected oropharyngeal lesions. When GATE a surgical robot is controlled with a plurality of adjustable arms by a surgeon at a console. The articulated arms of the robot and an endoscopic camera (which is kept open by a retractor) by the patient's mouth introduced. The robotic method provides better visualization of the structures and causes less surgical morbidity compared to open surgery. However, the indications for use of the TORS are not yet well defined. When GATE is used in patients with advanced tumors, postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is often performed. Radiation therapy, sometimes combined with chemotherapy (radiochemotherapy), can be used after surgery as primary therapy or. Traditionally, radiation treatment for early-stage cancer and chemoradiotherapy for advanced cancers have been used. The intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used as a way to spare the surrounding tissues and to reduce long-term side effects. Because the oropharynx is rich in lymphatics, metastasis in cervical lymph nodes are common and must be considered in all patients with oropharyngeal cancer into consideration. If metastases of cervical lymph nodes can not be corrected with a radiation or chemoradiation, a neck dissection is justified after the treatment.

Health Life Media Team

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