A compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, persistent, unwanted and intrusive thoughts, impulses or images (obsessions) and / or characterized by repetitive behaviors or mental acts to which the patients feel driven (compulsions) to try to fear that causes obsessions to reduce or prevent. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history. The treatment of which consists of psychotherapy (special exposure and response prevention), medical treatment (special, SSRIs or clomipramine) or, particularly in severe cases, a combination thereof.

OCD is among women slightly more common than among men, affecting approximately 1 to 2% of the population. Up to 30% of people with OCD or have had a past or current tic disorder (tics and Tourette’s syndrome in children and adolescents).

A compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, persistent, unwanted and intrusive thoughts, impulses or images (obsessions) and / or characterized by repetitive behaviors or mental acts to which the patients feel driven (compulsions) to try to fear that causes obsessions to reduce or prevent. The diagnosis is made on the basis of medical history. The treatment of which consists of psychotherapy (special exposure and response prevention), medical treatment (special, SSRIs or clomipramine) or, particularly in severe cases, a combination thereof. OCD is among women slightly more common than among men, affecting approximately 1 to 2% of the population. Up to 30% of people with OCD or have had a past or current tic disorder (tics and Tourette’s syndrome in children and adolescents). Symptoms and signs obsessions are unwanted, intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images whose presence usually leads to severe distress or anxiety. The obsessions revolve far the most common around the themes disaster risk themselves and others, risk of contamination, doubt, loss or aggression. For example, patients can become contaminated with dirt or germs be obsessed when they wash their hands not for ? 2 hours per day. The obsessions are not pleasant. So patients try to ignore them and / or suppress the thoughts, impulses or images. Or they try to neutralize by performing a compulsive act. Constraints (often called rituals) are exaggerated, repetitive, purposeful behaviors, of which the affected people think they have to do it to avoid the fear or reduce caused by their obsessive thoughts or to neutralize their obsessions , Examples are washing (z. B. hand washing, showering) checking (z. B., that the oven is turned off, that the doors are locked) counting (z. B. repeat a behavior for a certain number of times) ordering (z. B. the arrangement of the dishes or items from a work area in a predetermined pattern) most rituals such as hand washing or controlling locks can be observed, other mental rituals such as silent repeatedly counting or marbles of utterances are not. Usually the compulsive rituals in a precise manner must be carried out according to strict rules. The rituals can not, or can be realistically connected to the dreaded event. If they are realistic connected (z. B. showers, not to be dirty, checking the oven to prevent a fire), the constraints are clearly excessive-z. B. showers for hours a day or the oven is always 30 times to check before you leave the house. In all cases, the obsessions and / or compulsions must be time consuming (> 1 h / day, often much more), or cause the patient are significant harassed in their functioning or impaired; in its extreme obsessions and compulsions can make someone incapable. varying the degree of insight. Most people with OCD recognize to some degree that the beliefs their obsessions underlying are not realistic (z. B. that they really do not get cancer if they touch an ashtray). But sometimes the insight completely missing (d. H. Patients are convinced that the beliefs their obsessions underlying are true, and that their constraints are appropriate). Since people worry with this disorder, ridicule or being stigmatized, they often hide their compulsions and rituals. Interpersonal relationships often deteriorate, and performance in school or at work can subside. Depression is a common secondary feature. Diagnosis Clinical criteria The diagnosis is clinical, based on the presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both. The obsessions or compulsions must be time-consuming or cause clinically significant distress or impairment of function. Treatment exposure treatment and therapy for the prevention of rituals SSRI or clomipramine exposure treatment and therapy for the prevention of rituals are often effective; the gradual exposure of patients to situations or people that trigger the fear-mongering compulsions and rituals is crucial here as they are prevented from performing them. This approach allows the anxiety generated by the exposure can be reduced by habituation. The improvement often lasts for years, v. a. in patients who have mastered the procedure and continue it even after the official treatment. However, some patients respond only partially depends (as well as to drugs). Certain antidepressants, including SSRIs (Drug treatment of depression: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)) and clomipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant with potent serotonergic effects) are effective. Patients often need higher doses than typically used for depression and most anxiety disorders are needed. Many experts believe that the combination of exposure and prevention of rituals with a drug therapy, especially in severe cases, is best. Important points obsessions are intrusive, unwanted thoughts, images or impulses that usually cause marked distress or anxiety. Constraints are excessive, repetitive rituals, of which the people have the feeling of having to perform them in order to reduce the anxiety caused by their obsessions or neutralize their obsessions. Obsessions and / or compulsions must be time consuming (> .1 often much more h / day) or patients cause significant distress or impairment in their functioning. The treatment takes place in that the patient gradually situations are exposed where the anxiety-provoking obsessions and rituals are triggered while she keeps to not perform their rituals. The administration of an SSRI or clomipramine may also help.

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