Noncholera vibrions included Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. hollisae, and V. vulnificus; they can cause diarrhea, wound infection or septicemia.
Non-cholera vibrios are sometimes called nonagglutinable vibrios (d. E., That they do not agglutinate with serum of cholera patients agglutinate), respectively. They typically inhabit warm salt water or a mixture of salt and fresh water (eg. As in estuaries).
Noncholera vibrions included Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. hollisae, and V. vulnificus; they can cause diarrhea, wound infection or septicemia. Non-cholera vibrios are sometimes called nonagglutinable vibrios (d. E., That they do not agglutinate with serum of cholera patients agglutinate), respectively. They typically inhabit warm salt water or a mixture of salt and fresh water (eg. As in estuaries). V. parahaemolyticus, V. mimicus, and V. hollisae cause foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases in general, typically one purpose insufficiently cooked fish (mostly crustaceans). V. parahaemolyticus infections occur usually in Japan and in the coastal areas of the United States. The pathogens damage the intestinal mucosa, but do not produce enterotoxin or penetrate into the bloodstream. Also, a wound infection may develop if contaminated warm salt water invades a small wound. V. alginolyticus and V. vulnificus can cause serious wound infections, but no enteritis. V. vulnificus can after ingestion by a compromised host (usually someone with chronic liver disease or immune deficiency) penetrate the intestinal mucosa without causing enteritis and lead to septicemia with a high mortality rate; occasionally even healthy people can develop this infection. Symptoms and complaints After a 15- to 24-hour incubation period, there will be a sudden gastroenteritis; the manifestations include crampy abdominal pain, large quantities of aqueous-diarrheal stool (the stool may be bloody and polymorphic cells contain nucleophilic) Tenesme, weakness and sometimes nausea, vomiting and mild fever. Symptoms may suspend spontaneously after 24-48 hours. Cellulite can develop quickly in contaminated wounds in some cases (usually those with V. vulnificus) and develop into necrotizing fasciitis with typical hemorrhagic, bullous lesions. V. vulnificus septicemia caused shock, bullous skin lesions and frequently manifestations of disseminated intravascular coagulations (e.g., thrombocytopenia, bleeding.); the mortality rate is high. Diagnostic cultures wound infections and infections of the blood circulation can be diagnosed quickly based on routine cultures. Suspicion of enteric infection vibrio can be cultured from stool on a thiosulfate-citrate-bile salt-sucrose medium. The culture of contaminated seafood also leads to positive results. Ciprofloxacin or doxycycline therapy for intestinal infections antibiotics and often debridement of wound infections enteric infections by non-cholera vibrio can with a single dose of ciprofloxacin 1 g p.o. or doxycycline 300 mg p.o. be treated. Generally, however, such treatment is not necessary because the infection by itself subsides, although the treatment may be considered in severe cases considered. When diarrhea is present, care should be taken to the replacement of fluid and electrolytes lost. For wound infections, antibiotics are used-usually doxycycline 100 mg po every 12 hours, with or without a third-generation cephalosporin for severe wound infections or sepsis. Ciprofloxacin is an acceptable alternative. Patients with necrotizing fasciitis require surgical debridement. Important Points Not cholera vibrio can cause diarrhea, wound infection or septicemia, depending on the species and type of exposure. The diagnosis is made with a cultural detection of pathogens from blood, stool or local materials. Severe intestinal infections are treated with a single dose of ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. Wound infections are treated with doxycycline; for severe infection a cephalosporin of the third generation is added.