Among the nichtthrombotischen sources of pulmonary embolism include air, fat, amniotic fluid, infected material, foreign bodies and tumors.
A pulmonary embolism can also have non-thrombotic causes. The LE due to non-thrombotic causes causes clinical syndromes, which differ from the one tthrombotischen LE is different. The diagnosis is usually based partially or entirely on clinical criteria, in particular this includes the risk of the patient. Treatment includes supportive measures.
Among the nichtthrombotischen sources of pulmonary embolism include air, fat, amniotic fluid, infected material, foreign bodies and tumors. A pulmonary embolism can also have non-thrombotic causes. The LE due to non-thrombotic causes causes clinical syndromes, which differ from the one tthrombotischen LE is different. The diagnosis is usually based partially or entirely on clinical criteria, in particular this includes the risk of the patient. Treatment includes supportive measures. Air embolism air embolism caused by the entry of large amounts of air into the venous system or right side of the heart, which are then transported further into the pulmonary arterial vasculature. Obstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract can occur, which can be rapidly fatal. Causes include surgery, blunt trauma, incorrect or unsecured venous catheter, and errors that occur during insertion or removal of central venous catheters. The treatment involves the placement of the patients in the left lateral decubitus position, preferably in the Trendelenburg position (ie, the head is lower than the feet) to stop air in the apex of the right ventricle, thus preventing a cerebral embolism and obstruction of the pulmonary main artery , Supportive measures are also necessary. Rapid decompression after diving can result in the formation of gas bubbles in the pulmonary circulation, another problem that leads to endothelial damage, hypoxemia and diffuse infiltrates (arterial gas embolism). Fat embolism fat embolism is then caused by the Einschwemmen of adipose tissue or bone marrow constituents into the venous system and into the pulmonary arteries. The causes include long bone fractures, orthopedic surgery, the closure of very small vessels or Knochenmarknekrosen in patients with sickle cell anemia, and rarely toxic changes of own or parenteral serum lipids. Fat embolism cause ARDS similar, acute onset pulmonary syndrome with severe hypoxemia, which is often accompanied by neurological changes and a petechial rash. Early splinting of fractures of the long bones and operational rather than external fixation can probably prevent fat embolism. Amniotic fluid embolism amniotic fluid embolism is a rare syndrome and is then caused by the entry of amniotic fluid into the maternal venous system and into the pulmonary circulation. The syndrome occurs during labor on (amniotic fluid embolism) or, even more rarely, during prenatal uterine complications. Patients may be at risk of cardiac and respiratory by anaphylaxis, by leading to acute severe pulmonary hypertension vasoconstriction, as well as through direct toxic effects on the small pulmonary vessels with hypoxemia and pulmonary infiltrates. Septic embolism, septic embolism occurs when infectious material causing embolisms of the lung arteries. The causes include i.v. Substance abuse, infectious endocarditis of the right side of the heart and septic thrombophlebitis. Septic embolism caused symptoms and signs of pneumonia (z. B. fever, cough, sputum, pleuritic chest pain, dyspnea, tachypnea, and tachycardia) or sepsis (eg. As fever, hypotension, oliguria, tachypnea, tachycardia, and confusion). First nodular opacities appear on the radiograph of the chest; the appearance may proceed to peripheral infiltrates, and emboli can cavitate (especially embolism caused by Staphylococcus aureus). The therapy involves treating the underlying infection. Foreign body embolism, foreign body embolism caused by the entry of corpuscular material into the pulmonary arteries, usually due to i.v. Injections of inorganic substances such as talc with heroin addicts or elemental mercury in patients with mental disorders. Focal pulmonary infiltrates may occur. Tumor embolism tumor embolism is a rare complication of malignant disease (usually adenocarcinomas) in which neoplastic cells from a body organ enter the systemic venous and pulmonary artery system where they settle can multiply and constrict vessels or closed. The patients present typically with dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain and symptoms of pulmonary heart disease before that develop over weeks to months. The diagnosis should be considered in the kleinfleckiger or in the presence of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in the chest X-ray room, can be confirmed by biopsy or occasionally by cytological aspiration and histological examination of kapillärem pulmonary blood.