Nitrofurantoin is available for oral use only.
Nitrofurantoin is bactericidal; the exact mechanism of action is unknown. Nitrofurantoin is available for oral use only. Pharmacology After a single dose, serum concentrations are very low, but the drug concentration in the urine therapy. Indications nitrofurantoin is effective against common microorganisms can, such as Escherichia coli Staphylococcus saprophyticus Enterococcus faecalis E. faecium, including vancomycin-resistant strains and Klebsiella and Enterobacter sp. are less sensitive. Most Proteus – Providencia – Morganella -, Serratia – Acinetobacter – and Pseudomonas spp. Strains are resistant. There is no cross-resistance with other classes of antibiotics. Nitrofurantoin is only used for therapy or prophylaxis uncomplicated UTI in women with recurrent UTIs may reduce the number of episodes. Contraindications The contraindications to the use of nitrofurantoin include Past allergic reactions to nitrofurantoin renal impairment (creatinine clearance <60 L / min) age <1 mo Pregnancy and breast-feeding Nitrofurantoin is in pregnancy category B (animal studies show no risk and experience in people are incomplete or animal studies show risk, but human studies do not). Nevertheless nitrofurantoin is contraindicated during labor and delivery because it affects the immature enzyme systems in the red blood cells of the newborn, damages the cells and leads to hemolytic anemia. Nitrofurantoin excreted in breast milk and is contraindicated during the first month of lactation. Adverse effects The adverse effects include GI disorders Pulmonary Toxicity Peripheral neuropathy Hemolytic anemia liver toxicity Common adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, which occur less frequently in the macro crystalline form. Fever, rash, acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (accompanied by fever and eosinophilia) and chronic progressive pulmonary interstitial fibrosis may occur. Paresthesias may occur, which may be followed by severe ascending motor and sensory polyneuropathy in other applications, particularly in patients with kidney failure. About leukopenia and hepatotoxicity (acute cholestatic or chronic active hepatitis) has been reported, and hemolytic anemia can <1 month occur in patients with G6PD deficiency and in children. Chronic pulmonary and hepatic reactions when the drug is used for> 6 months can occur.