Moraxella Catarrhalis Infections

Moraxella catarrhalis causes infections in the ear area and the upper and lower respiratory tract.

First as Micrococcus classified, then as Neisseria and also as Branhamella catarrhalis known of these pathogens is a common cause of otitis media in children, acute and chronic bronchitis in all age groups and an infection of the lower respiratory tract in adults with chronic lung diseases. After nichttypisierbaren Haemophilus influenzae he is the second most common bacterial cause of COPD exacerbation. The M. catarrhalis pneumonia reminiscent of pneumococcal pneumonia. Although bacteremia is rare, half of the patients died within 3 months of intercurrent infections.

Moraxella catarrhalis causes infections in the ear area and the upper and lower respiratory tract. First as Micrococcus classified, then as Neisseria and also as Branhamella catarrhalis known of these pathogens is a common cause of otitis media in children, acute and chronic bronchitis in all age groups and an infection of the lower respiratory tract in adults with chronic lung diseases. After nichttypisierbaren Haemophilus influenzae he is the second most common bacterial cause of COPD exacerbation. The M. catarrhalis pneumonia reminiscent of pneumococcal pneumonia. Although bacteremia is rare, half of the patients died within 3 months of intercurrent infections. The prevalence of M. catarrhalis colonization is age-dependent. About 1-5% of healthy adults have a colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Nasopharyngeal colonization with M. catarrhalis is often during childhood, can occur frequently and is a risk factor for acute otitis media during the winter months; an early colonization is a risk factor for recurrent otitis media. There are significant regional differences in colonization rates. Among these differences are the living conditions, hygiene, environmental factors (eg. As smoking in the household), genetic characteristics of the population, host factors and other factors may contribute. The pathogen seems to be spreading continuously from the site of colonization to the site of infection in the respiratory tract. There are no pathognomonic signs of a conditional by M. catarrhalis otitis media, chronic sinusitis or pneumonia. For infections of the lower respiratory tract, patients suffer from worse cough, purulent sputum formation and pronounced dyspnoea. This gram-negative cocci resemble Neisseria sp., But can be easily distinguished by cultural isolation from infected fluids or tissues by routine biochemistry tests. All strains now produce beta-lactamase. The pathogen is most sensitive to beta-lactam / beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, oral cephalosporins with extended spectrum of activity, aminoglycosides, macrolides and fluoroquinolones.

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