The mitral valve prolapse (MKP) is the protrusion of the mitral valve into the left atrium during systole. The most common cause is idiopathic myxomatous degeneration. The MKP is usually benign, but complications include mitral regurgitation, endocarditis, and a tear of the tendon fibers. If no significant insufficiency exists, the MKP is usually asymptomatic; There are, however, been reports of some patients in whom chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness and heart palpitations occur. The findings are a sharp mittelsystolischer click, followed by a spätsystolischen sound when a failure is present. The diagnosis is made because of the physical examination and echocardiography. The prognosis is excellent in the absence of a significant failure, but it can sinew thread breaks and endocarditis occur. No special treatment is required, unless there is a significant mitral regurgitation before.

The mitral valve prolapse (MKP) is the protrusion of the mitral valve into the left atrium during systole. The most common cause is idiopathic myxomatous degeneration. The MKP is usually benign, but complications include mitral regurgitation, endocarditis, and a tear of the tendon fibers. If no significant insufficiency exists, the MKP is usually asymptomatic; There are, however, been reports of some patients in whom chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness and heart palpitations occur. The findings are a sharp mittelsystolischer click, followed by a spätsystolischen sound when a failure is present. The diagnosis is made because of the physical examination and echocardiography. The prognosis is excellent in the absence of a significant failure, but it can sinew thread breaks and endocarditis occur. No special treatment is required, unless there is a significant mitral regurgitation before.

(See also Overview of the heart valve diseases.) The mitral valve prolapse (MKP) is the bulging of the mitral valve into the left atrium during systole. The most common cause is idiopathic myxomatous degeneration. The MKP is usually benign, but complications include mitral regurgitation, endocarditis, and a tear of the tendon fibers. If no significant insufficiency exists, the MKP is usually asymptomatic; There are, however, been reports of some patients in whom chest pain, dyspnea, dizziness and heart palpitations occur. The findings are a sharp mittelsystolischer click, followed by a spätsystolischen sound when a failure is present. The diagnosis is made because of the physical examination and echocardiography. The prognosis is excellent in the absence of a significant failure, but it can sinew thread breaks and endocarditis occur. No special treatment is required, unless there is a significant mitral regurgitation before. The mitral valve prolapse is common; in otherwise bland populations is the 1-3%, depending on the used echocardiographic criteria. Men and women are equally affected, the onset is usually followed by an adolescent growth spurt. Etiology Mitral valve prolapse is most frequently caused by myxomatous degeneration of mitral valve leaflets and the chordae tendineae In myxomatous degeneration of the fiber collagen layer of the heart valve and mucoid (myxomatous) diluted material accumulates. The chordae are longer and thinner and increase the valve leaflets and become rubbery. These changes result in slack valve leaflets that can fall back into the atrium (prolapse) when the left ventricle contracts. The rupture of a degenerate chorda can cause the part of a valve leaflet fluttering in the atrium, which usually causes a severe insufficiency. The degeneration is usually idiopathic, although it may be autosomal dominant or rare, X-linked recessive. The myxomatous degeneration can be triggered by a connective tissue disease (eg. As Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, adult polycystic kidney disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa), and muscular dystrophies. The MKP is more common in patients with Graves’ disease, a Hypomastie, a Von-Von Willebrand disease, sickle cell disease and rheumatic fever. The myxomatous degeneration can also affect the aortic and tricuspid valve and lead to aortic or Trikuspidalklappenprolaps. A primary tricuspid regurgitation is much less as a secondary triggered by left ventricular symptoms, tricuspid regurgitation. A mitral regurgitation (MI) due to a Mitralklappenprolapses can with apparently normal Mitralklappensegeln in patients (i. E. Nonmyxomatous) occur due to ischemic or a papillary muscle tendons rheumatic thread demolition. A temporary MKP can arise when the intravascular volume decreases significantly such. As in severe dehydration or sometimes during pregnancy (if the woman is and the gravid uterus cava to the inferior V. suppressed and venous return is reduced). Complications MIitralinsuffizienz is the most common complication of MKP. An MI can be acute (caused by ruptured chordae, whereby the mitral valve leaflets flutter) or chronic. The consequences of MKP with MI include heart failure, infective endocarditis, and atrial fibrillation (AF) with thromboembolism. Whether the MKP caused a stroke or endocarditis regardless of a MI and VHF is unclear. Symptoms and signs Most patients with mitral valve prolapse are asymptomatic. Some feel nonspecific symptoms (eg. As chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, dizziness, Beinahesynkopen, migraine, anxiety), which are believed to consist rather due to poorly defined associated changes in adrenergic signaling and sensitivity, as a result of a Mitralklappenpathologie. One third of the patients emotional stress causes palpitations, which may be signs of benign arrhythmias (atrial premature beats, paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, ventricular premature beats, complex ventricular ectopia). Sometimes the patient himself before a mitral regurgitation. often with endocarditis (eg. as fever, weight loss, thromboembolic phenomena) or a stroke. A sudden cardiac death occurs in <1%, mostly due to a ruptured chorda tendinea and a fluttering mitral valve. Death due to ventricular arrhythmia is rare. Other physical findings that associated with the MKP, but are not diagnostic of it, close a Hypomastie, a pectus excavatum, the so-called. Straight-back syndrome and a short anterior-posterior chest diameter one. Auscultation Typically, the mitral valve does not cause visible or palpable signs. A MKP alone often causes a sharp midsystolic click when the subvalvular system tense suddenly. Clicking is best heard with the diaphragm of the stethoscope over the apex when the patient is in the left lateral position. A MKP with an MI causes a click of a spätsystolischen MI-noise. The click moves closer to the first heart sound zoom (S1) during maneuvers that reduce the LV-size (e.g., sitting, standing, Valsalva maneuver.); at the same maneuvers a Mi-noise may occur are louder or last longer. These effects arise because the decreasing LV size can tendineae closer together key under the flap and the papillary muscles and chordae, resulting in a faster, more powerful prolapse with previous, stronger regurgitation. On the other hand, a squatting position or an isometric handgrip results in a later S1-click and shortens the MI noise. The systolic click may be confused with the click at a congenital aortic valve stenosis, but which can be distinguished because it occurs very early in systole and postural or LV volume changes are not shifts. Other findings include a systolic HUP or Rufgeräusch (honk or whoop), which is believed that it is caused by a vibration of the valve leaflets. These findings are usually transient and may vary with the respiratory phase. An early diastolic opening signal caused by a return of the prolapsed valve in its normal position, is seldom heard. In some patients, especially in children, the findings of the MKP may be more noticeable after exertion. Noise of a S1 followed by a spätsystolischen click and S2. var player panel = $ (MManual.utils.getCurrentScript ()) Closest ( 'player..'); ko.applyBindings ({MediaUrl '/-/media/manual/professional/sounds/mitral_valve_prolapse_late-systolic_click_de.mp3?la=de&thn=0&mw=350', Mime Type: 'audio / wav'}, playerPanel.get (0)) ; Mitral valve prolapse (with spätsystolischem click) provided recording of Jules Constant, M.D. The systolic murmur in this example has a honking or calling character, which is attributed to the vibration of the valve leaflets. var player panel = $ (MManual.utils.getCurrentScript ()) Closest ( 'player..'); ko.applyBindings ({MediaUrl '/-/media/manual/professional/sounds/mitral_valve_prolapse_de.mp3?la=de&thn=0&mw=350', Mime Type: 'audio / wav'}, playerPanel.get (0)); Mitral valve prolapse recording provided by Jules Constant, M.D. Diagnosis Echocardiography diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse is suspected clinically and regurgitation through the mitral regurgitation mitral echocardiography ? ? confirmed. Thickened (? 5 mm) redundant mitral valve leaflets are so arranged that they show a more marked myxomatous degeneration and a greater risk of endocarditis. Mitral valve prolapse (echocardiogram) © Springer Science + Business Media var model = {thumbnailUrl: '/-/media/manual/professional/images/526-mitral-valve-prolapse-echocardiogram-s119-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn= 0 & mw = 350 ', imageUrl' /-/media/manual/professional/images/526-mitral-valve-prolapse-echocardiogram-s119-springer-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0 ', title:' mitral valve prolapse (echocardiogram ) ', description:' u003Ca id = "v38401576 " class = ""anchor "" u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = ""para "" u003e u003cp u003eDiese echocardiographic image showing a prolapse the posterior leaflet of the mitral valve into the left atrium (LA) u003c / p u003e u003c / div u003e 'credits'. © Springer Science + Business Media'

Comments

Leave a Reply

Sign In

Register

Reset Password

Please enter your username or email address, you will receive a link to create a new password via email.