Meningococcal Disease

Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis) can cause meningitis and meningococcemia. The most serious symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, lethargy, rash, multiple organ failure, shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by culture. For treatment, penicillin or a cephalosporin of the third generation are suitable.

(See Introduction to Neisseriaceae.)

Meningococcal (Neisseria meningitidis) can cause meningitis and meningococcemia. The most serious symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, lethargy, rash, multiple organ failure, shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by culture. For treatment, penicillin or a cephalosporin of the third generation are suitable. (See Introduction to Neisseriaceae.) Meningococcal are gram-negative aerobic cocci, belonging to the family Neisseriaceae. There are 13 serogroups; 5 (serogroups A, B, C, W135 and Y) cause most diseases in humans. is worldwide the incidence of endemic meningococcal disease 0.5-5 / 100,000, with increased numbers of cases in winter and spring in milder climates. Local outbreaks can occur; most common in sub-Saharan Africa between Senegal and Ethiopia, an area which is also known as meningitis belt. In large outbreaks in Africa (which often caused by serogroup A), it comes to the infection rate between 100-800 / 100,000. After the widespread use of the meningococcal A vaccine in the African meningitis belt, the serogroup A was replaced by other meningococcal serogroups and by Streptococcus pneumoniae. In the US, the annual incidence of 0.5 to 1.1 / 100,000. Over the past 20 years the incidence of meningococcal disease has decreased annually. Most cases are sporadic, usually in children <2 years; <2% occur in outbreaks. Outbreaks tend to occur in semi-closed communities (eg. As recruits camps College dormitories, schools, day care centers) and often affect patients aged 5-19 years. Serogroups B, C and Y are the most common causes of illness in the United States; each serogroup accounts for about one third of the reported cases. Serogroup A is rare in the United States. caused by meningococcal disease over 90% of meningococcal infections affect meningitis meningococcemia Less common are infections of the lungs, joints, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal organs, eyes, endocardium and pericardium. Pathophysiology meningococcal can colonize the nasopharynx of asymptomatic carriers. For the transition from the carrier status to invasive disease a combination of factors is probably responsible. Despite proven high colonization rates (10 to 40% of healthy people), the transition to invasive disease is rare and occurs primarily in front of previously infected patients. To a transfer there is usually through direct contact with respiratory secretions of nasopharyngeal carrier. Nasopharyngeal loads are highest among adolescents and young adults who serve as a reservoir for the transmission of N. meningitidis. The rate of asymptomatic carriers increases dramatically during an epidemic. After entering the body N. meningitidis causes both children and adults to a meningitis and severe bacteremia, which leads to profound vascular effects. The infection can proceed rapidly fulminant. The lethality is alone, compared to up to 40% for meningococcemia with septic shock in 4 to 6% for meningitis. 10-15% of surviving patients have serious consequences such. As permanent hearing loss, mental retardation or loss of fingers or limbs. Risk factors Most commonly infected are children aged 6 months up to 3 years to high-risk groups include young military recruits college students in the first year in dormitories live travelers to places where meningococcal disease is common (eg. B. certain countries in Africa and during the Hajj in Saudi Arabia) people with functional or anatomical asplenia same deficiencies of Microbiologissches Working with N. meningitidis isolates an infection or vaccination confers serogruppenspezifische immunity. The incidence of meningococcal disease is common in people with AIDS than in the adult general population. Earlier viral infection confined domestic conditions, chronic underlying disease and both active and passive smoking are associated with an increased risk of meningococcal disease (1) .Pathophysiologie Reference 1. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommendations for prevention and control of meningococcal diseases of the Advisory Committee on Immunization practices (ACIP) .. MMWR62 (2): 1-28, 2013. symptoms and discomfort patients with meningitis often report fever, headache and stiff neck (acute bacterial meningitis). Other symptoms include z. As nausea, vomiting, photophobia and lethargy. It often comes soon after onset of the disease to a makulopapulären or hemorrhagic petechial rash. On physical examination are frequently meningeal symptoms. Fulminant syndromes with detection of meningococcal in the blood are for. As the Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (septicemia, severe shock, cutaneous purpura, Nebennierenhämorrhagien), sepsis with multiple organ failure, shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation. A rare chronic meningococcemia leads to recurrent mild symptoms (mostly joints and skin). Meningococcemia Image courtesy of Mr. Gust on Public Health Image Library of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. var model = {thumbnailUrl: '/-/media/manual/professional/images/meningococcemia_orig_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350' imageUrl: '/-/media/manual/professional/images/meningococcemia_orig_de.jpg?la = en & thn = 0 ', title:' meningococcemia 'description:' u003Ca id = "v37896095 " class = ""anchor "" u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = ""para "" u003e u003cp u003eBei fulminant meningococcemia will initially cause petechiae

Health Life Media Team

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