Medulloblastoma

Medulloblastomas are invasive and rapidly growing CNS tumors in childhood that develop in the posterior fossa (the brain stem and cerebellum). Diagnosis is based on liver biopsy / resection. The therapy is a combination of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of the posterior fossa in children and represents about 20% of all pediatric CNS cancers. However, it has a bimodal peak at the age of 3 to 4 years and at the age of 8 to 10 years, can occur throughout childhood. Medulloblastoma is a type of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET).

Medulloblastomas are invasive and rapidly growing CNS tumors in childhood that develop in the posterior fossa (the brain stem and cerebellum). Diagnosis is based on liver biopsy / resection. The therapy is a combination of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant tumor of the posterior fossa in children and represents about 20% of all pediatric CNS cancers. However, it has a bimodal peak at the age of 3 to 4 years and at the age of 8 to 10 years, can occur throughout childhood. Medulloblastoma is a type of primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). The etiology of medulloblastoma is unclear in most PAaienten, but a medulloblastoma may occur with certain syndromes (eg. As Gorlin syndrome, Turcot syndrome). Symptoms and signs Patients usually suffer from vomiting, headache, nausea, blurred vision (z. B. double vision) and have an unsteady gait or an unsafe motor skills. Diagnosis MRI Histological examination of biopsy samples or the entire resected tumor MRI with gadolinium is the method of choice for an initial assessment of a possible medulloblastoma. The final diagnosis is made by using tumor tissue from a biopsy or in the ideal case by Gesamtresektion of the tumor at the first presentation. Once the initial diagnosis is made, staging and risk grouping in medulloblastoma are critical. Staging tests include MRI of the entire spine lumbar puncture for CSF cytology The postoperative MRI to any residual tumor to evaluate risk assessment is based on the amount of residual tumor and detecting the spread of disease: High risk: Postoperative residual disease is> 1.5 cm2 or there is a disseminated microscopic or serious illness. Average risk: Postoperative residual disease is <1.5 cm2 and there is no distribution. Prognosis The prognosis depends on the stage, histology and biological parameters (eg histological, cytogenetic, molecular Paramtern.) Of the tumor and the patient's age, but generally> 3 years: the probability of survival of a disease-free interval 5 years is 50-60% if the tumor of high risk and 80% if the tumor of average risk. Age ? 3 years: The prognosis is therefore problematic in part because up to 40% of children at the time of diagnosis have a disseminated disease. Children who survive are at risk to develop serious long-term neurocognitive deficits (z. B. of memory, the Language Center and the executive Funktien). Therapy surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy The treatment of medulloblastoma includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Healing with chemotherapy alone has been shown in some children <3 years old. Combination therapy offers the best long-term chance of survival in general.

Health Life Media Team

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