Marijuana affects euphoric, but can also act as a sedative or dysphoric in some people. There is no overdose. With long-term use can cause a psychological dependence; but there is only a very small clinically apparent physical dependence. The withdrawal is unpleasant, but requires only supportive care.
(See also cannabinoids, synthetic.)
Marijuana affects euphoric, but can also act as a sedative or dysphoric in some people. There is no overdose. With long-term use can cause a psychological dependence; but there is only a very small clinically apparent physical dependence. The withdrawal is unpleasant, but requires only supportive care. (See also cannabinoids, synthetic.) Marijuana is the most common illicit substance used, their use is usually episodic and without evidence of social or psychological impairment. In the United States is usually smoked marijuana, either in the form of cigarettes, which are produced from the female inflorescences with or without pendent sheets of dried hemp plant (marijuana) or as hashish, the pressed resin of the hemp plant. The legalization of marijuana for recreational use in 2010 in certain states in the US has opened a huge market for marijuana products that are ingested or vaporized and applied topically in tincture, lotion and spray form. The main active ingredient of cannabis is as dronabinol, a synthetic form of ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is used medically to treat nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy in cancer and improve appetite in AIDS patients. Pathophysiology ?-9-THC binds to cannabinoid receptors, which are found in the brain. Chronic effects Any substance that produces euphoria and anxiety can be reduced, leading to a dependency; Cannabis is no exception. Consumers who smoke cannabis at high doses can pulmonary symptoms (acute bronchitis, wheezing, cough and sputum production), develop, and lung function may be changed. However, even with daily smoking, it does not lead to obstructive airway disease. The most recent data suggest that heavy marijuana use is associated with significant cognitive impairment and anatomical changes in the hippocampus, especially when the use of marijuana during puberty begins. There is no evidence of an increased risk of head and neck or respiratory cancers as in tobacco. A feeling of reduced ambition and diminishing energy is often described. Fetal damage caused by cannabis use during pregnancy is not clearly documented. Although a reduced fetal weight was observed; taking into account all factors, however, (such as alcohol and tobacco consumption by the mother) seem to be low impact. However, since the security was not yet established marijuana should get pregnant by pregnant women and those who are trying to avoid. Dronabinol passes into breast milk. Although no damage was detected in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding as well as pregnant women should limit the consumption of cannabis. Symptoms and complaints intoxication and withdrawal are not life threatening. Acute effects Smoking cannabis leads after a few minutes into a dreamy state of consciousness with unrelated, unexpected and free-floating thoughts. The perception of time, space and color can be changed. In general, the noise is in a sense of euphoria and relaxation ( “high” to be). These effects last 4-6 hours after inhalation. Many of the other psychological effects seem to depend on the outer frame in which the substance is consumed. Anxiety, panic attacks and paranoia have occurred, especially among first-time consumers. Marijuana can exacerbate psychotic symptoms in schizophrenic or even trigger, even in those who are treated with antipsychotics. Physical effects are easy for most patients. Tachycardia, eye redness and dry mouth occur regularly. Concentration, space and time perception and depth perception are affected for 24 hours. This can be dangerous (z. B. driving, operating machinery), especially in certain situations. Appetite often takes zu.Entzug Discontinuation for frequent, intensive users may result in minor withdrawal symptoms, varying the time of occurrence of withdrawal symptoms, but often begins about 12 hours after the last dose. Symptoms include insomnia, irritability, depression, nausea and loss of appetite; the symptoms have peaked after 2 to 3 days and last up to 7 days. The cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is a recently described syndrome of cyclic episodes of nausea and vomiting associated with chronic cannabis users; Usually the symptoms resolve spontaneously within 48 hours. Hot Baden alleviates these symptoms and is a clinical clue to the diagnosis. Diagnosis Clinical evaluation Diagnosis is clinically usually. Blood tests are typically not determined. Most routine drug testing in urine to various substances include marijuana, but they can lead to false-negative or false-positivn results. Treatment Supportive Treatment is generally unnecessary; in patients who have significant symptoms, treatment is supportive. Patients with cannabinoid Hyperemesis- syndrome can infusions and antiemetics need (anecdotal reports suggest that haloperidol is effective). Control of the abuse typically consists of a behavioral therapy in an outpatient drug treatment program. For more information Narcotics Anonymous World Services substance abuse and Mental Health Services Administration