The lymphocytic choriomeningitis caused by an arenavirus. They usually causes an influenza-like illness or aseptic meningitis, sometimes with rash, arthritis, orchitis, parotitis or encephalitis. The diagnosis is made by virus isolation, PCR, or indirect immunofluorescence. Treatment is supportive.
(See also Overview of infections by Arbovirus, Arena virus and filovirus.)
The lymphocytic choriomeningitis caused by an arenavirus. They usually causes an influenza-like illness or aseptic meningitis, sometimes with rash, arthritis, orchitis, parotitis or encephalitis. The diagnosis is made by virus isolation, PCR, or indirect immunofluorescence. Treatment is supportive. (See also Overview of infections by Arbovirus, Arena virus and filovirus.) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is endemic in rodents. A human infection usually occurs through exposure to dust or foods that have been contaminated by the gray house mouse or hamsters, which harbor the virus and excrete it in the urine, feces, semen and nasal secretions. For a transfer by mice, the disease occurs mainly in adults in the fall and winter. Symptoms and signs The incubation period for lymphocytic choriomeningitis is 1-2 weeks. Most patients have no or minimal symptoms, some develop an influenza-like illness. The fever is usually at 38.5 to 40 ° C and is accompanied by rigors, disease and weakness, myalgia (especially lumbar), retro-orbital headache, photophobia, anorexia, nausea and dizziness associated. More rarely, there is a sore throat and dysesthesia. After 5 days to 3 weeks, the clinical condition of the patient can improve for 1-2 days. There are frequent relapses with recurrent fever, headaches, rashes, swelling of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints, meningitis signs, orchitis, parotitis or alopecia of the scalp. In a small percentage of patients experience of aseptic meningitis. Rarely leads to encephalitis, ascending paralysis, bulbar palsy, transverse myelitis, or acute Parkinson’s disease. Neurological sequelae occur in meningitis are rare, but can occur in encephalitis in up to 33% of patients. Infection during pregnancy can cause birth defects, including hydrocephalus, chorioretinitis and mental retardation. Infections that can occur during the first trimester have fetal death. Diagnostic PCR, Liquoranlyse, antibody detection and Virus Culture The suspicion to lymphocytic choriomeningitis consists in patients with exposure to rodents and of acute disease, especially in the presence of aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. An aseptic meningitis reduces Liquorglukosespiegel only slightly, but occasionally up to 15 mg / dl. The leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid, up to a few thousand rich, mostly with> 80% lymphocytes from a few hundred. Characteristically, it comes in the first week of the disease to leukocyte counts in the blood of 2000-3000 / ul and platelet counts of 50.000-100.000 / ul. The diagnosis can be made by PCR or by isolating the virus from the blood or cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase of the disease Indirect immunofluorescence of inoculated cell cultures, even if those tests are used in testing laboratories most likely. Tests that provide evidence of seroconversion of antibodies against the virus therapy Supportive treatment The Behnadlung lymphocytic choriomeningitis is supportive. The measures depend on the severity of the disease. If an aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis develops, patients should be hospitalized and treatment with ribavirin may be considered. Anti-inflammatory drugs (eg. As corticosteroids) can be considered under certain circumstances. Important points in humans lymphocytic choriomeningitis usually is acquired by exposure to dust or eating foods that are contaminated with feces from mouse or hamster. Most patients have no or minimal symptoms, but some develop a flu-like illness, and a few developing aseptic meningitis. Infection during pregnancy can cause birth defects. If the infection during the first trimester occurs, the fetus may die.