Listeriosis

A Listeriosis is a Listeria sp. induced infection for themselves. expressed as as bacteremia, meningitis, encephalitis, dermatitis, okuloglanduläres syndrome, intrauterine and neonatal infection or rarely endocarditis. Symptoms vary depending on the infected organ system. Intrauterine infection can lead to fetal death. The diagnosis is made by the cultural detection of pathogens. For therapy to penicillin are, ampicillin (often with aminoglycosides), and trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole.

A Listeriosis is a Listeria sp. induced infection for themselves. expressed as as bacteremia, meningitis, encephalitis, dermatitis, okuloglanduläres syndrome, intrauterine and neonatal infection or rarely endocarditis. Symptoms vary depending on the infected organ system. Intrauterine infection can lead to fetal death. The diagnosis is made by the cultural detection of pathogens. For therapy to penicillin are, ampicillin (often with aminoglycosides), and trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole.

(Listeriosis in newborns.) A Listeriosis is a Listeria sp. induced infection for themselves. expressed as as bacteremia, meningitis, encephalitis, dermatitis, okuloglanduläres syndrome, intrauterine and neonatal infection or rarely endocarditis. Symptoms vary depending on the infected organ system. Intrauterine infection can lead to fetal death. The diagnosis is made by the cultural detection of pathogens. For therapy to penicillin are, ampicillin (often with aminoglycosides), and trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole. Listeria are small, non-acid-fast, non-encapsulated, non-spore forming, ?-hemolytic, aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, which have a characteristic tumbling motility. They occur in the environment and in the intestines of humans, non-human mammals, birds, spiders, crustaceans worldwide. There are different Listeria species, but L. monocytogenes is the only pathogen that occurs in humans. The average annual incidence of Listeria infections in the US in 2013 was 2.6 million, with an increase in the summer. Infection rates are highest in newborns and adults ? 60 years. Transmission Because L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous in the environment, contamination possibilities are numerous during food production. Almost all kinds of foods can L. monocytogenes harboring and transmitted, but an infection occurs mostly through ingestion of contaminated dairy products, raw vegetables or meat, and it is facilitated by the ability of L. monocytogenes to survive at refrigeration temperatures and to multiply. An infection, it can also by direct contact or the slaughter of infected animals. Tips and risks Listeria monocytogenes can reproduce at refrigerator temperature, so easily contaminated, refrigerated foods can be highly contaminated. Risk Factors Because L. monocytogenes multiplies intracellularly, control of listeriosis requires a cell-mediated immunity, therefore, the following persons are at high risk: Immunocompromised patients newborns Older Pregnant women also have an increased risk of developing a listeria infection, antepartum and intrapartum from mother be transferred to the child and can cause abortion or early infant death. Listeria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial meningitis. Symptoms and signs A primary listerial bacteremia is rare and causes high fever without local symptoms and signs. Endocarditis, peritonitis, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, cholecystitis and pleuropneumonia may occur. A febrile gastroenteritis can occur after ingestion of contaminated food. A listerial Bateriämie can lead to intrauterine infection, chorioamnionitis, premature labor, fetal death or infection of the newborn. Meningitis is caused in about 20% of newborns and patients> 60 years by Listeria. A Rhombenzephalitis manifested with impaired mental status, cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar signs and motor or sensory deficits. 20% of cases proceed to a diffuse encephalitis, more rarely, to a Rhombenzephalitis and brain abscesses. A okuloglanduläre listeriosis, a ophthalmitis and an enlargement of the regional lymph nodes cause (Parinaud syndrome). It can occur due to infection of the conjunctiva and, without treatment, progress to bacteremia and meningitis. Diagnosis culture Listeria infections are diagnosed by blood or Liquorkulturen. Because listeria can be confused with diphtheroid sticks slightly, the laboratory must be informed of the suspected L. monocytogenes. In all Listeria infections occur 2-4 weeks after onset of symptoms to high IgG Agglutinintitern. Therapy ampicillin or penicillin G, usually with an aminoglycoside A listeria meningitis is best with ampicillin 2 g iv treated every 4 h Most experts recommend the addition of gentamicin (1 mg / kg i.v. every 8 h), depending on the in vitro synergy. Cephalosporins are not effective. For the treatment of neonatal meningitis, acute bacterial meningitis in newborns: organism-specific antibiotic therapy endocarditis and bacteremia primary listerial be with ampicillin 2 g iv every 4 h plus gentamicin (synergistic effect) for 6 weeks (endocarditis) and two weeks after treatment of fever (with bacteremia). A okuloglanduläre listeriosis and Listeria dermatitis should erythromycin 10 mg / kg p.o. responsive every 6 h, which is added to a week after defervescence. Cephalosporins have no in vitro activity and should not be used; on failure of treatment with vancomycin has been reported. Alternatively, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole can 5/25 mg / kg i.v. every 8 h are given. Linezolid is active in vitro, but clinical experience is missing. Prevention Because contamination of food is common and because L. monocytogenes can reproduce at refrigerator temperature, lightly contaminated food may be heavily contaminated during cooling This problem is particular reason for concern when food (eg frozen ready meals) is recorded without further cooking , Thus, adequate food hygiene is important, particularly for vulnerable people (eg., Patients with compromised immune systems, pregnant women, the elderly). Vulnerable people should avoid the following foods: soft cheeses (. Eg feta, Brie, Camembert) cooled eat foods (such as hot dogs, sausages, P?tés, meat spreads.), Unless they are to an internal temperature of 73.9 ° C (165 ° F) or even just before serving steaming hot Refrigerated smoked seafood (z. B. nova style, lox, kippered, smoked, jerky), unless it was cooked raw milk (pasteurized) Conclusion L. monocytogenes is widespread in the environment, but caused only about 2.6 people / 1 million infections, usually through contaminated food. The rates are highest in newborns, adults ? 60 years old and immunocompromised patients. Various organ systems may be affected; Mother infection during pregnancy can lead to fetal death. Administration with ampicillin, gentamicin plus a rule.. Patients should be advised that they can avoid the disease by eating foods with a high risk of contamination immediately and / or by cooking them properly (or at high-risk patients to avoid such foods).

Health Life Media Team

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