Patients with hypothalamic-pituitary lesions generally show a combination of symptoms and signs of mass: headache, appetite changes, thirst, visual field defects-especially bitemporal hemianopia or hemifield-slide phenomenon (images drift apart) copyright for a mass lesion as incidental finding hypersecretion or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones the most common reason pituitary over- or under-function is a pituitary or hypothalamic tumor. Pituitary tumors often cause an extended Sella (Sella turcica). Alternatively, a Sella enlargement can also be an expression of the syndrome of the empty sella. Syndrome of the empty sella In this disorder, the Sella appears blank because it is filled with liquor, which the pituitary gland presses flat against the wall Sella. The syndrome may be Congenital primary secondary due to an injury (eg. As ischemia after childbirth, surgery, traumatic brain injury, radiation) The typical patient is female (> 80%), overweight (75%) and hypertensive (30%) and may suffer (10%) or cerebrospinal fluid leakage from the nose (10%) under idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The pituitary function in patients with the syndrome of the empty sella is often normal. Nevertheless, a hypopituitarism, as well as headaches or vision loss. Occasionally, patients have small co-existing pituitary tumors, the growth hormone (GH), prolactin or ACTH secreting. The diagnosis can be confirmed by CT or MRI. At its sole occurrence of an empty sella it requires no specific therapy. Lesions of the anterior lobe hypersecretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary (hyperpituitarism) is almost always selective, even though a tumor sometimes hypersekriert both growth hormone and prolactin. The anterior pituitary hormones that are most often paid excessive, are GH (acromegaly, gigantism), prolactin (as in galactorrhoea,) and ACTH (leading to Cushing’s disease). Hyposecretion of hormones of the anterior pituitary (hypopituitarism) can be generalized occur, mostly due to a pituitary tumor or idiopathic. It is also possible selective Hyposecretion one or more anterior pituitary. Lesions of the posterior pituitary are the two hormones of the posterior pituitary oxytocin, vasopressin (ADH) In women, oxytocin causes contraction of myoepithelial cells in the breast and myometrial cells in the uterus. Oxytocin can be detected in men. So far, no function is known there. A lack of vasopressin leads to a central insipidus diabetes. Excessive vasopressin secretion leads to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).