Leprosy

(Hansen’s disease; Hansen’s disease)

Leprosy is a chronic infection that is usually caused by acid-fast bacteria and Mycobacterium leprae which has a unique tropism for peripheral nerves, skin and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. There are countless symptoms, including anesthetic polymorphic skin lesions and peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by biopsy. Treatment is usually with dapsone and other anti-mycobacterial drugs such as rifampicin. Patients are fast no longer contagious after starting treatment.

M. leprae was until 2008 the only known cause of leprosy, as a second species, M. lepromatosis, was identified in Mexico.

Leprosy is a chronic infection that is usually caused by acid-fast bacteria and Mycobacterium leprae which has a unique tropism for peripheral nerves, skin and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract. There are countless symptoms, including anesthetic polymorphic skin lesions and peripheral neuropathy. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by biopsy. Treatment is usually with dapsone and other anti-mycobacterial drugs such as rifampicin. Patients are fast no longer contagious after starting treatment. M. leprae was until 2008 the only known cause of leprosy, as a second species, M. lepromatosis, was identified in Mexico. Although leprosy is highly contagious not, rarely leads to death, and can be effectively treated with antibiotics, it is still associated with a heavy social stigma. The misconception about the disease has probably occurred because the leprosy was incurable before the advent of effective antibiotic therapy in the 1940s. People with the disease have often been disfigured and suffering from serious disabilities, so they were feared by other people and shunned. Because of this social stigma the psychological impact of leprosy is often considerable. Epidemiology Worldwide decreases the number of leprosy cases. In 2011, about 219,000 new cases were reported. About 80% of these cases occurred in India, Brazil and Indonesia. In 2009 213 new cases were reported in the United States; 65% of which occurred in seven states: California, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New York and Texas. Most leprosy cases in the United States apply to persons who have immigrated from developing countries. Leprosy can occur at any age, but most often this seems to be the case for people aged 5-15 years or> 30 years. Pathophysiology The human being is the most important natural reservoir of M. leprae. Armadillos are the only confirmed another source outside of man, although other animal and environmental sources exist. It is believed that leprosy spread from person to person by nasal secretions and droplets. Normal contact (z. B. a simple touch of an ill) and short-term contact does not appear to spread the disease. About half of people with leprosy has this probably contracted through close, long-term contact with an infected person. Even after contact with the bacteria, most people prefer to not leprosy; medical staff often work without becoming ill themselves for many years suffering from leprosy people. Most (95%) immunocompetent people who are infected with M. leprae do not develop leprosy because of effective immunity. probably people who develop leprosy, have been insufficiently characterized genetic predisposition. M. leprae grow slowly (doubling within 2 weeks). The usual incubation period ranges from 6 months to 10 years. If an infection occurs, it can lead to blood-borne dissemination. Classification leprosy can be categorized by type and number of affected skin: Paucibazillär: ? 5 skin lesions without any evidence of bacteria on samples from these areas Multibazillär: ? 6 skin lesions, bacteria were detected in samples of skin lesions or both leprosy can also cellular response and clinical findings are classified: Tuberkuloid (TT) Lepromatös (LL) Borderline (between TT and LL) people with tuberkuloider leprosy typically have a strong cell-mediated response, which limited the disease to some skin lesions (paucibazillär) and the disease is easier, less frequent and less contagious. Persons with lepromatous or borderline leprosy generally have a small cell-mediated defense against M. leprae and have a severe systemic infection with an extensive bacterial infiltration of the skin, nerves and other organs (eg. As nose, testicles, kidneys). They have more skin lesions (multibazillär), and the disease is contagious. In both classifications, the type of leprosy determines the long-term prognosis, likely complications, and duration of treatment with antibiotics. Symptoms and signs The symptoms do not begin until> 1 year in usually after infection (an average of 5-7 years). Once occurred, the symptoms stride slow Leprosy mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves. The involvement of the nerves caused sensitive and motor deficits in the places that are supplied by the affected nerves. Tubercular leprosy CNRI / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/m2000171_tuberculoid_leprosy_science_photo_library_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/ – / media / manual / professional / ? images / m2000171_tuberculoid_leprosy_science_photo_library_high_de.jpg lang = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ tubercular leprosy ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v37896085 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eDiese figure shows lesions of the skin

Health Life Media Team

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