Learning disorders show a discrepancy between potential and actual intellectual achievements that are expected due to the intellectual ability of a person. Learning disorders may be difficulties in concentration or attention, language development or the visual or auditory information processing. The diagnosis includes a testing of intellect, behavior, speech and language as well as a medical and psychological examination. Treatment consists mainly in an educational concept that is sometimes accompanied by a behavioral therapy, medical and psychological therapy.
be learning disorders as a kind of neuro-developmental disorders considered. Neurodevelopmental disorders are neurologically-related phenomena that occur early in childhood, usually before starting school. These disorders affect the development of personal, social, academic and / or professional functioning and typically involve difficulties with the acquisition, maintenance or use of special skills or collections of information. The disturbances may result in dysfunction of attention, memory, perception, language, problem solving and social interaction. Other common neurodevelopmental disorders include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and limited intellect.
Learning disorders show a discrepancy between potential and actual intellectual achievements that are expected due to the intellectual ability of a person. Learning disorders may be difficulties in concentration or attention, language development or the visual or auditory information processing. The diagnosis includes a testing of intellect, behavior, speech and language as well as a medical and psychological examination. Treatment consists mainly in an educational concept that is sometimes accompanied by a behavioral therapy, medical and psychological therapy. be learning disorders as a kind of neuro-developmental disorders considered. Neurodevelopmental disorders are neurologically-related phenomena that occur early in childhood, usually before starting school. These disorders affect the development of personal, social, academic and / or professional functioning and typically involve difficulties with the acquisition, maintenance or use of special skills or collections of information. The disturbances may result in dysfunction of attention, memory, perception, language, problem solving and social interaction. Other common neurodevelopmental disorders include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and limited intellect. Specific learning disabilities affect the ability to understand or use spoken language understanding or use of spoken language, perform mathematical calculations coordinate movements Focus your attention on a task Therefore, these disabilities include difficulty in reading, math, spelling, written expression, handwriting and use of verbal a: and nonverbal language (General Specific learning Disabilities see table). Most learning disabilities are complex and often show deficits in several areas. Although the exact number of children is unknown with learning disabilities, get 5% of school children in the United States a special promotion. The affected children, the boys filters (5: 1) the larger share. Learning disorders can be congenital or acquired. Until now, no cause has been identified, but one suspects neurological causes. Genetic influences are often suspected. Other possible causes are for. B. A maternal disease or the use of toxic drugs during pregnancy complications during pregnancy or childbirth (z. B. bleeding, toxemia of pregnancy, labor, over a long period of time, precipitate delivery) Neonatal problems (eg. B. premature birth, low birth weight , severe jaundice, perinatal asphyxia, missed deadlines, respiratory distress syndrome) Possible postnatal risk factors include exposure to lead, cerebral infections, cancer and its treatment, trauma, malnutrition and severe isolation or deprivation. General Specific Learning Disabilities disease manifestation dyslexia (impairment when reading) trouble reading Phonological dyslexia problems with Phonemverständnis Phonemgedächtnis Surface- dyslexia problems in visual recognition of shapes and structures of words dysgraphia (disability in written expression) Dyscalculia (impairment in mathematics) (ageometresia) problems due to disturbances in mathematical reasoning to understand problems with spelling, the written expression or handwriting problems with mathematics and difficulties with problem solving Ageometria Anarithmie disturbances in the ability to perform basic math concepts and computational skills form anomia (Dysnomie) difficulty adjusting to words and infor to remember mation when they are needed symptoms and discomfort children with learning disabilities have average intelligence, although such disorders in children occur with inferior intelligence. Symptoms and signs of serious disorders can be seen at an early age. Most mild to moderate learning disabilities but are not recognized until school age, when the rigid principles of school learning are applied. Academic impairments Affected children may have difficulty learning the alphabet and assign coupled associative terms (color naming, designating objects, counting, letters mention). The speech recognition can be limited and the language can be learned slowly. Even the vocabulary may be reduced. Affected children often do not understand what they read, have poor handwriting or hold the pen clenched in his hand; they may have difficulty organizing tasks or to start or a story to tell ordered, they can mathematical symbols or numbers verwechseln.Executive dysfunction disorders or developmental delays spoken or heard language suitable for the prediction of learning problems after kindergarten. The memory, both the short and long-term memory can be just as certain memory and reproduction strategies disturbed. Problems acumen may occur, such as difficulties in the conceptualization, while abstracting, generalizing, in information organization and planning to solve problems. Difficulties in visual perception and sound perception may occur. They include difficulties in spatial perception and orientation (object localization, spatial memory, detection of position and location), with visual attention and visual memory and sound discrimination and sound analysis Some children ein.Verhaltensprobleme with learning disabilities have difficulties in social interaction; they let others do not get their turn, true no distance and do not understand jokes. These difficulties may also be signs of mild autistic disorder. Other early warning signs are a short concentration, restlessness and distractibility, signs fine motor problems (eg. As bad typeface and copying), changing services and changeable behavior over a period of time. Difficulties in impulse control, not goal-directed behavior and hyperactivity, discipline problems, withdrawal and avoidance behavior, shyness, strong fears and aggressive behavior may be more signs. As described above, are learning and attention deficits as well Hyperaktivitä often together before (ADHD). Diagnosis Cognitive, behavioral, medical and psychological Untersuchngen Clinical Criteria Children with learning disabilities often fall when a difference between their school performance and their existing possibilities exist. A study of speech and language, intellect, cognition, education, medical and psychological tests are necessary to determine shortcomings and differences in skills and cognitive processes. Equally necessary are social and emotional behavioral observations in order to set up a treatment plan and assess progress. Rating Assessment of Cognition based on verbal and nonverbal intelligence tests and is usually performed by school psychologists. Neuropsychological tests can be helpful to determine how the child processes information (holistic or analytical, visual or hearing). Neuropsychological tests are useful to identify areas in the brain that respond to therapeutic stimuli, particularly in children with brain injuries or brain diseases. Language tests can show whether the language comprehension, language usage, pronunciation and word memory are intact. The pädagogoische assessment and evaluation of the performance inside the classroom from the perspective of teachers can help further. Reading tests measure the ability to decipher and recognizing words, fluent reading and reading comprehension. Writing samples should be analyzed to assess spelling, grammar and flow of ideas. Computational tests examine the computational ability, knowledge of the computation process, the understanding of mathematical concepts and interpretation of “word problems”. The medical examination should include a detailed family history, the child’s medical history, a physical examination and a neurological and developmental neurological examination to look for causing disturbances. Rare pathologic physical findings or neurological abnormalities may be medically treatable causes of a learning disability. Coordination difficulties gross motor skills can be a sign of a neurological disease or a developmental disorder. The level of development is determined according to standardized methods. Psychological tests can ADHD, behavioral problems, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem that often occur together, identify and distinguish it from a learning disorder. Furthermore, the attitude towards the school and peers, motivation and self-confidence beurteilt.Klinische criteria The diagnosis is made clinically according to criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of intellectual disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and requires proof that at least one present the following opportunities for ? 6 months despite targeted intervention was: Inaccurate, slow and / or exhausting reading difficulty or the importance of writing of written documents to understand swallowing difficulty (eg expressed several grammar and punctuation errors, ideas not clear.) difficulty in understanding the meaning of numbers (. eg understanding of the relative size and relationship of numbers; in older children, difficulty to perform simple calculations) difficulties the mathematical argument (eg. As the use of mathematical concepts to solve problems) capabilities must be substantially below the level that is expected for the child’s age and also significantly affect performance in school or daily activities. Treatment methods of education in medical, behavioral, and psychological therapy Sometimes drug therapy Treatment focuses on educational measures, sometimes accompanied by a medical, psychological and behavioral therapy. Effective learning programs have a supportive, compensatory and strategic approach such. As it comes to teach the child how it can learn. If the method of teaching and learning disorder or learning style of the child, however, do not match, the learning disorder can worsen. Some children just need additional specific instructions in a field, and may otherwise follow the regular classes. Other children need special intensive training programs. Most affected children should be taught in classes where the peers do not have learning disabilities. Medications help with school performance, intelligence and general ability to learn little, although some (eg. As psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and other amphetamines) improve attention and concentration. They help the child by following the class better. Many popular remedies and therapies (elimination diets, food supplements, antioxidants, large amounts of vitamins, sensory stimulation and passive movement, sensory integrative therapy posture exercises, auditory nerve training and optometric training to improve the visual-perceptual and sensory-motor coordination) lack of effective proof of efficacy.