Iodine

In the environment and in food iodine occurs as iodide in the first place. In adults, approximately 80% of absorbed in the thyroid iodide remain. Seawater contains most iodine of the natural environment in the form of iodide, some iodine enters the Earth’s atmosphere and reached by rain groundwater and soils near the sea. Therefore, people who live far away from the sea and settled in higher areas with a special risk of developing iodine deficiency. enriched with iodide table salt (typically 70 mcg / g) contributes to adequate supply of 150 mcg / day. Higher is the need for pregnant women (220 mcg / day) and nursing women (290 mcg / day).

Iodine (I) plays in the body primarily a role in the synthesis of two thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). In the environment and in food iodine occurs as iodide in the first place. In adults, approximately 80% of absorbed in the thyroid iodide remain. Seawater contains most iodine of the natural environment in the form of iodide, some iodine enters the Earth’s atmosphere and reached by rain groundwater and soils near the sea. Therefore, people who live far away from the sea and settled in higher areas with a special risk of developing iodine deficiency. enriched with iodide table salt (typically 70 mcg / g) contributes to adequate supply of 150 mcg / day. Higher is the need for pregnant women (220 mcg / day) and nursing women (290 mcg / day). Iodine deficiency Iodine deficiency is rare in areas where iodized salt is used, but it occurs worldwide. , Iodine deficiency develops when the Jodidzufuhr is <20 mcg / day. Symptoms and complaints For slight or moderate iodine deficiency hypertrophy caused by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to the growth stimulated thyroid - produces a colloid goiter. Most thyroid function remains normal, but may cause a severe iodine deficiency in adults hypothyroidism (myxedema). It reduces fertility and increases the risk of fetal death or spontaneous abortion and prenatal and infant mortality. A severe iodine deficiency mother inhibit fetal growth and brain development, partly caused malformations. In infants, the lack cretinism what mental retardation, deaf-mutism, mobility problems, short stature and sometimes hypothyroidism einschließt.Diagnose assessment of the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adults and children supported the diagnosis of iodine deficiency on the study of thyroid function and imaging procedures caused from be clear which functional and structural abnormalities of the thyroid gland. All newborns should have the determination of TSH levels tested for iodine deficiency werden.Therapie iodide with or without levothyroxine infants with iodine deficiency one week after once-daily oral levothyroxine at a dose of 3 micrograms / kg and in addition several weeks orally once daily 50 -90 micrograms iodide to achieve quickly resume their euthyroid state. Children receive once daily from 90 to 120 micrograms iodide. Adults with iodine deficiency take once a day 150 micrograms iodide. Iodine deficiency can also be treated by the administration of levothyroxine. Serum TSH levels are observed in all patients until normal levels (<5 ? I.U./ml) are present. Jodintoxikation Chronic intoxication occurs when the supply of more than 1.1 mg / day. Most people who take iodine in excess, remain euthyroid. Some people that are overly perform much iodine, develop, especially if they suffered previously from a lack of iodine, a hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). Paradoxically, the excessive intake of iodide by the thyroid, the synthesis of thyroid hormone prevent (Wolff-Chaikoff effect). Therefore, a Jodidintoxikation can eventually lead to a Jodidstruma to hypothyroidism or myxedema. Very large amounts of iodide solve a brass taste in the mouth, increased salivation, irritate the stomach-intestinal tract and cause acne-like skin lesions. Even patients who have too often taken large amounts of X-ray contrast agents or the drug amiodarone should be monitored their thyroid function. Diagnosis is based usually on the results of thyroid function tests and imaging techniques that correlate with the clinical data. The urinary iodine leads to clearer results, but is usually not measured. As part of the therapy of Jodintoxikation abnormalities of thyroid function are corrected and made with excessive intake, dietary adjustments.

Health Life Media Team

Leave a Reply