Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the vaccines are modified annually to the strains with the highest prevalence (usually two influenza A strains and one or two influenza B strains) to capture. Sometimes in the northern and southern hemispheres slightly different vaccines are used.
For more information, s. Influenza Vaccine Recommendations ACIP and provider Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) Supplements. Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the vaccines are modified annually to the strains with the highest prevalence (usually two influenza A strains and one or two influenza B strains) to capture. Sometimes in the northern and southern hemispheres slightly different vaccines are used. Preparations There are two basic types of vaccines: Inactivated Infuenza vaccine (IIA) attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) Trivalent vaccines are gradually being replaced by quadrivalent vaccines that cover an extra B virus strain. A recombinant trivalent influenza vaccine (RIV3) and a cell culture-based vaccine (ccIIV3) that does not contain egg protein, is available. A high-dose trivalent vaccine for patients ? 65 years is available. Indications An annual influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons may IIA ? 6 months all persons be given ? 6 months including pregnant women. IIA can individuals with a history lighter egg allergy (d. E. Those who have only exhibited hives after exposure to eggs) are administered if additional safety measures are taken. A clinician who is familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of allergic reactions should give these people the vaccine and the clinician, it must then be observed for 30 minutes after vaccination. An age-appropriate material should be used. Adults ? 65 years should be given high-dose IIA. The high dose is only recommended for those ? 65 years. RIV3 can be used in persons aged 18 to 49 who have an egg allergy any grade and who have no other contraindications to the vaccine. LAIV may be given healthy people aged 2 to 49 who are not pregnant and do not have immunosuppressive conditions. The safety of LAIV is not ensured in people with diseases that they for complications from influenza, including advanced lung disease or asthma, predispose. Health workers who care for immunocompromised individuals (ie those persons who require care in a protected environment) should IIA or RIV3 instead of receiving LAIV (or she should avoid contact with immunocompromised individuals for 7 days after the vaccine have received avoid). Contraindications and precautions The most important contraindication IIA is a severe allergic reaction (eg., Anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of any IIA or LAIV or vaccine component, including egg protein The precautions for IIA comprise Moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever (vaccination is, if possible, move until the disease is over) Guillain-Barre syndrome within 6 weeks, after a previous dose of an influenza vaccine include the following contraindications for LAIV: a severe allergic reaction (e.g. anaphylaxis) to a. any previous dose influenza vaccine or vaccine component, including egg protein immunodeficiency (z. B. due to diseases, including HIV infection, or use of Immunosuppressants) Certain chronic diseases (eg. As asthma; reactive airway disease; Diabetes; hemoglobinopathies; Diseases of the lungs, heart or kidneys) in children and adolescents is a long-term treatment with aspirin or other salicylates gestational age of <2 years or ? 50 years of age <5 years if a reactive airway disease (eg. As known asthma, recurrent or shortly past Bronchoobstruktion) is present, the precautions for LAIV include Moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever (vaccination, if possible, be postponed until the disease is over) Guillain-Barre syndrome within 6 weeks after a previous dose of influenza -Impfstoffs use of specific antiviral drugs: d. H. Amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir (these drugs be stopped 48 hours prior to vaccination and not recorded for 14 days after vaccination again) The most important contraindication RIV3 A severe allergic reaction (eg., Anaphylaxis) after a previous dose of RIV3 or vaccine component the precautions for RIV3 include Moderate or severe acute illness with or without fever (vaccination, if possible, be postponed until the disease is over) Guillain-Barre syndrome within 6 weeks after a previous dose of influenza vaccine dosage and administration The influenza vaccine is given annually. For IIA, the dose is 0.25 ml i.m. for children aged from 6 to 35 months, 0.5 ml i.m. for persons ? 3 years 0.1 ml for people aged 18 to 64 years, intradermally The smaller, intradermal dose can be used to save vaccine if he is temporarily in short supply. For LAIV, the dose is 0.1 ml, which is sprayed into both nostrils (the total dose is 0.2 ml). For RIV3 the dose is 0.5 ml and i.m. administered. Side Effects For IIA made the undesirable effects mostly only mild pain at the injection site. Fever, myalgia, and other systemic side effects are relatively rare; However, individuals who have been vaccinated, incorrectly assume that the vaccine causes influenza. Such reactions do not constitute contra-indications for future vaccinations, which should be encouraged. Multiple dose vials contain thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative. Public concern about a possible link between thimerosal and autism have been shown to be unfounded (anti-vaccination movement: thimerosal and autism); However, are single-dose vials that do not contain thimerosal, are available. For LAIV the unwanted effects are mild; Rhinorrhea is the most common and it can be a slight wheezing occur.