Listeriosis is more common in pregnancy. Listeriosis increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and stillbirth. is possible neonatal transmission.
The most common maternal infections (eg. As urinary tract, skin and respiratory infections) are not a serious problem mostly during pregnancy, although some genital infections (bacterial vaginosis and genital herpes) affect the birth itself and the choice of mode of delivery. So the essential question is often after the use and safety of antibiotics. However, some maternal infections can also harm the fetus (congenital cytomegalovirus or herpes simplex virus infection, rubella, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis or syphilis infections of the newborn; HIV infection- infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants and children ). Listeriosis is more common in pregnancy. Listeriosis increases the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and stillbirth. is possible neonatal transmission. A bacterial vaginitis and possibly a genital chlamydial infection increase susceptibility to premature rupture of membranes and premature birth. Tests for these infections take place in the context of routine prenatal care or when to show the first symptoms. Genital herpes can be transmitted to the newborn during birth. The risk is so high that in the following situations a Caesarean section is preferred: The women have visible herpetic lesions on the women with known infection in the medical history develop prodromal symptoms before the labor Herpes infection occurs first in the late third trimester to (a cervical viral shedding at birth probably) the risk is the case of visible lesions or missing disease signs, even for women with recurrent infections, low, so a vaginal birth is possible. When women are asymptomatic, even multiple cultures can not be used to identify women who are at risk of infection before birth. When women but have no other risk factors for transmission during pregnancy recurrent herpes infections, the contractions in some cases can be initiated so that the birth between two acute relapse occurs. Then, if delivered vaginally, the cervix and the newborn herpes virus have to be performed. Acyclovir (oral and topical) appears to be safe for use in pregnancy. Antibiotics An antibiotic avoided in pregnant women must, unless there are clear indications of a bacterial infection. The use of an antibiotic in pregnancy should be based on the fact that the benefit outweighs the risk, which must be assessed differently in each trimester (see table: Some drugs with adverse effects during pregnancy to specific side effects). to consider the severity of the infection and other therapeutic alternatives. Aminoglycosides can be used during pregnancy to treat a pyelonephritis and Chorionamnionitis, but to avoid prejudicing the mother or fetus, the treatment should be carefully monitored. Cephalosporins are usually considered safe. Chloramphenicol does not harm the fetus in high doses. However, chloramphenicol can not metabolize newborn sufficiently, and so the resulting high blood levels can lead to circulatory collapse (gray baby syndrome). Chloramphenicol is used rarely in the United States. Fluoroquinolones not be used during pregnancy; they tend to be a high affinity for bone and cartilage and may therefore have musculoskeletal side effects. Macrolides are generally considered safe. The use of metronidazole in the first trimester was considered controversial; However, no teratogenic or mutagenic effects were observed in several studies. Of nitrofurantoin is not known that it causes congenital malformations. It is contraindicated just before the deadline, since it can lead to anemia in newborns. Penicillins are generally considered to be safe. Sulfonamides are safe during pregnancy generally. However, long-acting sulfonamides cross the placenta and can displace bilirubin from its binding site. These drugs are often avoided after 34 weeks because of a potential for kernicterus in the newborn is. Tetracyclines cross the placenta and are concentrated in the fetal bones and teeth and deposited where they combine with calcium and affect the development (see table: Some drugs with adverse effects during pregnancy); they are not applied in the second half of pregnancy.