Immunological assays using one of the following: an antigen for detection of antibodies against a pathogen in the patient sample antibody to capture an antigen of a pathogen in the sample of the patient. The application of the samples varies, however, if the test procedure is delayed, the samples should normally be refrigerated or frozen, to prevent the overgrowth of bacterial contaminants. In agglutination agglutination tests (for. Example, latex agglutination, co-aggregation) are particles (latex beads, gelatin particles, bacteria) coupled to reacting antigens or antibodies. The particle complex is mixed with the sample (for example, cerebrospinal fluid, serum.); if the targeting antibody or the target antigen is present in the sample, there will be cross-linking between particles, leading to a measurable agglutination. With positive results, the body fluid is serially diluted and investigated. Agglutination with more dilute solutions is an indication of a higher concentration of the target antigen or antibody. The titer is correctly given as a reciprocal of the most dilute solution, which still results in an agglutination; z. B. means 32 that agglutination has occurred in a solution was diluted to 1/32 of the starting concentration. Agglutination tests are usually fast, but less sensitive than many other methods. You can also determine serotypes some species of bacteria. Complement fixation (KBR): This test measures komplementverbrauchende (complement-) antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. KBR is used for the detection of many viral and fungal infections, the latter especially in the coccidioidomycosis. The sample is incubated with known quantities of complement and the antigen that is the target of the antibody is measured. The extent of complement is an indication of the relative amount of water present in the sample antibody. The test can measure IgM and IgG antibody titers or can be modified to recognize certain antigens. He’s right, but limited to certain applications, is labor intensive and requires numerous controls. These tests use enzyme immunoassays to detect and recognize by antibodies and to determine associated antibodies to antigens with enzymes. The enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are examples. Due to the high sensitivity of most enzyme immunoassays they are routinely used for screening purposes. Titer may be determined by serial dilution of the sample, as in agglutination assays. The test sensitivities are usually high, but can vary depending on patient age, serotype of the pathogen, sample type or clinical stage. Präzipationstests These tests that measure antigen or antibody in body fluids by the extent of visible precipitation of antigen-antibody complex in an agarose gel or a solution. There are many types of precipitation tests (z. B. Ouchterlony double diffusion, counter-immunoelectrophoresis), but their applications are limited. Typically, a blood sample is mixed with a test antigen to detect patient antibodies, mostly for suspected. Fungal infection or purulent meningitis. As a positive result requires a large amount of antibodies or antigens, the analytical sensitivity is low. Western blotting method This test will detect antimicrobial antibodies in the patient’s sample (eg., Serum, other body fluids) by their reaction with target antigens (e.g., B. viral components) which have been fixed to a membrane by blotting. The Western blot is highly specific and typically has a good sensitivity, but most of the other screening tests (eg., ELISA) is located. Therefore, the WB is usually used to confirm an image obtained by screening test positive result. Technical modifications of the Western blot are the line immunoassay (LIA) The recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA), the synthetic or recombinantly-produced antigens used Immunochromatographic analyzes which can rapidly analyze samples for specific microbial antigens or antibodies of the patient. the immunochromatographic assay of the three is the simplest and the most frequently verwendete- z. B. to Shiga toxin-producing microorganisms to recognize the Cryptococcus neoformans capsular antigen and the influenza virus.