Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein-polysaccharide complex which is found in colon carcinomas and in normal fetal colon, pancreatic and liver tissues. The blood levels are increased in patients with colon cancer, but the specificity is relatively low, as positive test results in patients with a heavy smoker or patients with cirrhosis, ulcerative colitis and other tumor types (eg. As breast, pancreas, bladder, ovary, cervix) occur. The monitoring of CEA levels may be useful for the discovery of tumor recurrence after tumor removal, if the patient initially elevated CEA values ??had; it also plays a role in the accurate estimation of the forecast based on the stage.
Tumor-associated antigens (TAA) may be helpful and sometimes provide information about the response to therapy or relapse in the diagnosis of various tumors. The ideal tumor marker is submitted by tumor tissue is specific for a particular tumor, and even at low tumor cell numbers detected. It also shows a direct correlation to the tumor cell mass and is present with this tumor in all patients. Although most tumors detectable antigenic macromolecules emit into circulation, no tumor marker shows all the required characteristics and provides sufficient specificity and sensitivity to apply in the early diagnosis or as part of a general screening program. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein-polysaccharide complex which is found in colon carcinomas and in normal fetal colon, pancreatic and liver tissues. The blood levels are increased in patients with colon cancer, but the specificity is relatively low, as positive test results in patients with a heavy smoker or patients with cirrhosis, ulcerative colitis and other tumor types (eg. As breast, pancreas, bladder, ovary, cervix) occur. The monitoring of CEA levels may be useful for the discovery of tumor recurrence after tumor removal, if the patient initially elevated CEA values ??had; it also plays a role in the accurate estimation of the forecast based on the stage. The alpha Fetoproteinist a normal product of fetal liver cells. It is found in the serum of patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma, non-seminomatous germ cell tumors and often ovarian cancer and embryonic teratocarcinoma of the testis. The values ??are more useful for estimating the prognosis and rarely for diagnosis. The beta chain of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) is measured using an immunoassay and is the most significant markers in women with obstetric trophoblastic tumors. To this group of diseases include hydatidiform as well as the non-metastatic and metastatic trophoblastic tumors. In addition, the ? chain of human chorionic gonadotropin is found in about two-thirds of men with an embryonic teratocarcinoma or choriocarcinoma of the testis. The beta chain is determined because it is specific to hCG. In healthy people, this marker is present in small amounts. During pregnancy, the levels are elevated. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein in the ductal epithelial cells of the prostate and can be detected even in healthy man in low concentrations in serum. Using appropriate upper normal values ??of the patients, an increased serum PSA value can with monoclonal antibodies at about 90% with advanced prostate cancer are also detected when no metastasis has not yet occurred. The PSA is more sensitive than the prostatic acid phosphatase, but less specific, since it is also elevated in other conditions (z. B. benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis, intrum plate engaging in the urogenital tract). The PSA can be used for discovery of a recurrence after previous diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. CA 125 is effective in screening, diagnosing and monitoring the therapy of ovarian cancer to be clinically useful. However, one also finds in every inflammatory process of the peritoneum and some other tumors increased values. Beta-2 microglobulin is frequently elevated in multiple myeloma and some lymphomas. It is mainly used for estimation of prognosis. CA 19-9 was originally used for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, but shows a higher sensitivity for pancreatic cancer. It is mainly used to assess the response to treatment in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. CA 19-9 can be increased beyond some benign bile duct and cholestatic diseases in other gastrointestinal cancers, especially in bile duct carcinomas, and. CA 15-3 and CA 27-29 are elevated in most patients with metastatic breast cancer. However, the values ??may be elevated in other disorders. These markers are used primarily for monitoring treatment response. Chromogranin A is used as a marker for neuroendocrine carcinoid or tumors. Sensitivity and specificity for neuroendocrine tumors can be over 75%, the diagnostic accuracy for metastatic disease higher than that of localized tumors. But the mirrors in other tumors such. For example, the lung, and prostate, and benign disease (e.g., as primary hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic atrophic gastritis) be increased. Thyroglobulin is produced by the thyroid gland and may be increased in various thyroid diseases. It is mainly used to detect the recurrence of thyroid cancer after complete thyroidectomy and monitor response to treatment for metastatic thyroid carcinoma. TA-90 is the highly immunogenic subunit of a tumor-associated antigen of the urogenital tract, which is present in 70% of patients with melanoma, soft tissue sarcoma and carcinoma of the breast, colon and lung. Some studies have shown that TA-90 values ??accurately predict survival and subclinical disease can view in melanoma after surgery.