Imaging Methods For The Genitourinary Tract

Imaging techniques are often used to study patients with renal and urological diseases. Plain radiographs without contrast radiography of the abdomen without X-ray contrast agents can be carried out to check the position of urethral stents or evaluate position and growth of kidney stones. In the initial diagnosis of urolithiasis, plain films are less sensitive than CT and have no anatomical details so that they are not the investigation of choice. X-ray contrast media recordings after administration of water-soluble contrast agents make the kidneys and the urine collection system visible. Widespread use of today is a nonionic, isoosmolaler agents (eg. As iohexol, iopamidol). They show fewer side effects than the older hyperosmolalen means, but still carry the risk of acute renal failure (Kontrastnephropathie- X-ray contrast media and contrast media reactions: Kontrastmittelnephropathie) in itself. When an X-ray urography after intravenous, percutaneous antegrade or retrograde, or retrograde via cystoscopy passing an X-ray contrast agent is created. Contraindications for all patients provide an iodine allergy and risk factors of Kontrastnephropathie is (n. D. Talk .: only for iv administration). IVU (iv urography or pyelography) IVU has now largely with or without contrast replaced by the rapid multi-dimensional CT and MRI (n. D. Talk .: in the US). An abdominal compression during the IVU may be improved (with enlargement) and distal urethra (after discharge) the visualization of the renal pelvis and the upper ureter. Additional receptacles 12 and 24 h after administration of the contrast agent can be used to detect a post-renal obstruction or hydronephrosis indexed sein.Perkutane antegrade urography In percutaneous antegrade urography the radiation-resistant contrast medium is introduced through a lying nephrostomy, rare by percutaneous puncture of the renal pelvis under fluoroscopy. Occasionally, a ureterostomy or an ileal conduit can be used. Antegrade urography is used in the following cases: If a retrograde urography is unsuccessful (. Eg due to tumor obstruction at the level of the bladder) If large kidney stones that require percutaneous surgery must be evaluated, if a transitional cell carcinoma of the upper collecting system is suspected when patients no general anesthesia or the level of sedation, which is required for retrograde urography, tolerated out of the puncture and the introduction of the catheter into the urogenital tract can complications in the form of bleeding, infection, injury of the lungs or intestines, hematuria, pain and Urinextravasation give .Retrograde urography in retrograde urography is introduced, the X-ray contrast agent via cystoscopy and Ureterkatheterisierung directly into the ureter and the renal pelvis. These sedation or general anesthesia is required. This technique can be used when CT and MRI are with IV contrast agents contraindicated (z. B. with chronic kidney disease) or not available, or if the results are not unique (z. B. in renal failure) are. It is also useful for detailed examination of the pelvicalyceal system and the ureters to check for injury, stricture or fistula. Overstretching and reflux of a kidney in the venous system, however, the goblets can deform and conceal details. The risk of infection is higher than other types of urography. Acute edema and secondary ureteral stricture are rare Komplikationen.Urethrozystographie When Urethrozystographie (UCG short) is introduced, the strahlenresitente contrast agent directly into the urethra and bladder. This technique provides more detail than other imaging methods for the evaluation of the following:. Vesicoureteral reflux urinary incontinence Recurring HWI urethral strictures suspected trauma to the urethra or bladder The voiding cystourethrogram is performed during urination, and is primarily used to represent rear urethral valves visually (e.g. B . at strictures or valves) A ??patient preparation is required. Side effects include UTI and Urosepsis. Zystourethrogramm ZEPHYR / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/c0180463_cystourethrogram_science_photo_library_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/ – / media / manual / professional / images /c0180463_cystourethrogram_science_photo_library_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0 ‘, title:’ Zystourethrogramm ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v37896748 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eBei the Urethrozystographie (short UCG)

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