Hyperventilation Syndrome

The hyperventilation syndrome is defined as having anxiety associated dyspnea and tachypnea, often accompanied by systemic symptoms.

Often affected are young women. Generally, however, both sexes of all ages can develop a hyperventilation syndrome. Sometimes it is caused by emotionally stressful events. The hyperventilation syndrome differs from a panic disorder, although both diseases show overlaps; about half of all patients with panic disorder suffer from hyperventilation, and a quarter of all patients with hyperventilation syndrome is a panic disorder before.

The hyperventilation syndrome is defined as having anxiety associated dyspnea and tachypnea, often accompanied by systemic symptoms. Often affected are young women. Generally, however, both sexes of all ages can develop a hyperventilation syndrome. Sometimes it is caused by emotionally stressful events. The hyperventilation syndrome differs from a panic disorder, although both diseases show overlaps; about half of all patients with panic disorder suffer from hyperventilation, and a quarter of all patients with hyperventilation syndrome is a panic disorder before. The hyperventilation syndrome occurs in two forms: Acute: The acute form is easier to recognize than the chronic. Chronic: Chronic hyperventilation is more common than acute. Symptoms and signs Acute hyperventilation syndrome in acute hyperventilation attack may suffer from such severe dyspnea patients sometimes that they feel suffocating. Accompanying occur agitation and panic or symptoms such as chest pain, paresthesia (peripheral and perioral), peripheral tetany (z. B. stiffness of the fingers or arms) and syncope or syncope, or sometimes a combination of all of these symptoms. Tetany is caused by the respiratory alkalosis, leading to hypophosphatemia and hypocalcemia. In the study, the patients anxious, tachypneic or both appear. The lung examination is unauffällig.Chronisches hyperventilation syndrome in patients with chronic hyperventilation, the symptoms are much weaker and is often overlooked; these patients sigh deeply and frequently and show nonspecific somatic symptoms associated with mood disorders, anxiety disorders and emotional stress. Diagnostic tests to rule out other diagnoses (chest x-ray, ECG, pulse oximetry). The hyperventilation syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion. The challenge is in the judicious use further diagnostic exclusion severe disease (n. D. Ed .: requirement hyperventilation z. B. with exogenous hypoxia, anemia, CO poisoning, metabolic acidosis and a pulmonary or thoracic induced hypoxia). The basic tests include chest x-ray pulse oximetry ECG Pulse oximetry shows the hyperventilation syndrome, an oxygen saturation at or near 100%. The chest x-ray findings are unremarkable. The ECG is used to the exclusion of cardiac ischemia. When hyperventilation syndrome but ST-segment depressions, reversal of T waves and prolonged QT times can occur. The BGA is necessary when other causes of hyperventilation such. B. metabolic acidosis is suspected. Occasionally, the acute hyperventilation can not be distinguished from acute lung embolism clinically, so that a further diagnostic (eg., D-dimers, ventilation / perfusion scintigraphy, CT angiography) may be necessary. Clinical Calculator: QT interval correction (ECG) therapy Supportive counseling Sometimes psychiatric or psychological treatment Treatment consists of enlightenment and reassurance of the patient. Some doctors advocate a patient training course on maximal expiration and diaphragmatic breathing. In most patients, treatment of the underlying affective disorder or anxiety disorder is required. This treatment consists u. a. of a cognitive therapy, techniques for coping with stress, drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, lithium), or a combination of these methods.

Health Life Media Team

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