Hydrocarbon Poisoning

Hydrocarbon poisoning occur through oral or inhaled route. Oral ingestion as <5 years is most prevalent in children can lead to aspiration pneumonia. Inhalation, which is most commonly found in teenagers, can usually lead to ventricular fibrillation without warning. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia based on clinical symptoms, X-rays and measurement of oxygen saturation. A gastric emptying is contraindicated due to the risk of aspiration. Treatment is supportive.

Oral intake of hydrocarbons such as petroleum distillates (eg. As gasoline, kerosene, mineral oil, lamp oil, nitro thinner) has only a minimal systemic effect, but can cause severe aspiration pneumonia. The risk potential is dependent primarily on the viscosity. Liquid hydrocarbons with low viscosity such as gasoline and mineral oil can spread rapidly over a large surface and lead to a higher probability of aspiration pneumonia as the hydrocarbons with a higher viscosity such. B. tar. Hydrocarbons are consumed in large quantities, they can be absorbed and develop a central nervous or hepatic toxicity; this applies in particular. of the halogenated hydrocarbons (eg. as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene).

Hydrocarbon poisoning occur through oral or inhaled route. Oral ingestion as <5 years is most prevalent in children can lead to aspiration pneumonia. Inhalation, which is most commonly found in teenagers, can usually lead to ventricular fibrillation without warning. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonia based on clinical symptoms, X-rays and measurement of oxygen saturation. A gastric emptying is contraindicated due to the risk of aspiration. Treatment is supportive. Oral intake of hydrocarbons such as petroleum distillates (eg. As gasoline, kerosene, mineral oil, lamp oil, nitro thinner) has only a minimal systemic effect, but can cause severe aspiration pneumonia. The risk potential is dependent primarily on the viscosity. Liquid hydrocarbons with low viscosity such as gasoline and mineral oil can spread rapidly over a large surface and lead to a higher probability of aspiration pneumonia as the hydrocarbons with a higher viscosity such. B. tar. Hydrocarbons are consumed in large quantities, they can be absorbed and develop a central nervous or hepatic toxicity; this applies in particular. of the halogenated hydrocarbons (eg. as carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene). The improper inhalation of hydrocarbons (eg. As adhesives, paints, solvents, cleaning sprays, benzene, fluorinated hydrocarbons as a refrigerant or propellant, volatile solvent), in English "huffing" (n. D. Ed .: deep inhalation), or "bagging "(.. Editor's note .: inhaling with tools such as bags etc.) called, is common in adolescents and can cause euphoria and mental changes; the heart is sensitive to endogenous catecholamines. The result can be fatal ventricular arrhythmias that occur usually without prior palpitations or other symptoms, often when patients are surprised or persecuted during inhalation. A regular Toluoleinnahme can trigger a long-term CNS toxicity, which is characterized by periventricular, occipital and thalamic destruction. Symptoms and discomfort after oral ingestion of even small amounts of liquid hydrocarbons develop the patient coughing, gagging and possibly vomiting. Infants may be cyanotic, develop long pauses in breathing and a persistent cough. Older children and adults often complain of a burning sensation in the stomach. Aspiration leads to hypoxia and dyspnea. The clinical signs of chemical pneumonitis usually appear already a few hours before the radiological findings. in halogenated hydrocarbons, stupor, coma, seizures a systemic absorption may especially larger scale. trigger. A non-lethal chemical pneumonitis is usually after about one week back; after oral intake of mineral oil or lamp oil it takes to recovery usually 5-6 weeks. Arrhythmias usually occur before the first contact to the patient. After that a recurrence is unlikely as long as the patient shows no marked agitation. Diagnostic chest X-ray and oximetry about 6 hours after ingestion If the patient is not sufficient awareness clear to charge a history with him, so it can be considered from a hydrocarbon exposure when the breath or clothing smells of it or if a corresponding container found near becomes. Paint residue on the hands or around the mouth suggest a short-ago colors sniffing. The diagnosis of aspiration pneumonitis is due to the clinical picture and using a chest X-ray and a measurement of oxygen saturation. These tests are also performed earlier in about 6 hours after intake of poison or severe symptoms. On suspicion of respiratory failure, arterial blood gas analysis is performed. CNS toxicity is diagnosed by a neurological examination and an MRI. Therapy Supportive treatment No gastric emptying the contaminated clothing is removed and the skin washed. Cave: A gastric emptying is contraindicated, as this increases the risk of aspiration. Activated carbon is not recommended. Patients who have developed other symptoms after 4-6 hours neither aspiration can be dismissed. Symptomatic patients are hospitalized and supportive treatment; Antibiotics and corticosteroids are not initially indicated. Tips and risks No gastric emptying when a hydrocarbon poisoning is suspected (sometimes due to the suspicion of the smell on the breath or clothing).

Health Life Media Team

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