Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection (Hiv Infection)

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is brought about by one of two related retroviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2), which destroy inter alia, CD4 + lymphocytes and affects cell-mediated immunity, which increases the risk of certain infections and malignancies becomes. The primary infection may cause a nonspecific febrile illness, which is referred to as an acute retroviral syndrome. The risk of secondary manifestations – related to the immunodeficiency – is inversely proportional to the number of CD4 lymphocytes. HIV can directly damage the brain, gonads, kidneys and the heart, which causes cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, renal failure and cardiomyopathy. Manifestations ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to AIDS, which is defined by severe opportunistic infections or opportunistic neoplastic diseases. alone a CD4 cell count of <200 / ul as AIDS-defining - in the United States applies - unlike in Europe. HIV infection can be diagnosed by an antibody, a Nukleidsäuren- (HIV RNA) or antigen detection (p24). The screening should be routinely offered to all adults and adolescents. The treatment aims to suppress HIV replication using combinations of ? 3 drugs inhibit HIV enzymes; the treatment can restore the immune function in most patients again when the suppression of replication is maintained.

(Infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants and children, AIDS information website of the National Institute of Health and “HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected with HIV”) ( Editor’s Notes: EACS guidelines: http://eacsociety.org/guidelines; German-Austrian guidelines: http://www.daignet.de/site-content/hiv-therapie/leitlinien-1)

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is brought about by one of two related retroviruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2), which destroy inter alia, CD4 + lymphocytes and affects cell-mediated immunity, which increases the risk of certain infections and malignancies becomes. The primary infection may cause a nonspecific febrile illness, which is referred to as an acute retroviral syndrome. The risk of secondary manifestations – related to the immunodeficiency – is inversely proportional to the number of CD4 lymphocytes. HIV can directly damage the brain, gonads, kidneys and the heart, which causes cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, renal failure and cardiomyopathy. Manifestations ranging from an asymptomatic carrier state to AIDS, which is defined by severe opportunistic infections or opportunistic neoplastic diseases. alone a CD4 cell count of <200 / ul as AIDS-defining - in the United States applies - unlike in Europe. HIV infection can be diagnosed by an antibody, a Nukleidsäuren- (HIV RNA) or antigen detection (p24). The screening should be routinely offered to all adults and adolescents. The treatment aims to suppress HIV replication using combinations of ? 3 drugs inhibit HIV enzymes; the treatment can restore the immune function in most patients again when the suppression of replication is maintained. (Infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in infants and children, AIDS information website of the National Institute of Health and "HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Primary Care Guidelines for the Management of Persons Infected with HIV") ( Editor's Notes: EACS guidelines: http://eacsociety.org/guidelines; German-Austrian guidelines: http://www.daignet.de/site-content/hiv-therapie/leitlinien-1) retroviruses are enveloped RNA viruses, defined by its replication mechanism in which produces a reverse transcriptase DNA copies that can be integrated into the host cell genome. Several retroviruses, including two types of HIV us two types of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV - HTLV) infection, cause serious illness in humans. HTLV infection Infection with the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 1 or 2 can, T-cell leukemias and lymphomas cause lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin lesions and immunodeficiency. Some HTLV-infected patients develop infections similar to those that occur in HIV-infected patients. HTLV-1 can also lead to myelopathy (Tropical spastic paraparesis / HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP / HAM)). Most cases are transmitted from the mother to the child through breastfeeding, but HTLV-1 can sexually, through blood and rarely through organ transplantation of HTLV-1-seropositive donors are transferred. HIV-1 causes most HIV infections worldwide, but HIV-2 causes a significant portion of infections in parts, mostly in West Africa and in countries in the heaped migration from West Africa takes place (e.g., Portugal). Where both pathogens are prevalent these can lead to co-infections in the same patient. HIV-2 appears less virulent than HIV-1. HIV-1 is originally from Central Africa the first half of the 20th century, when closely related chimpanzee virus infected people in several independent REreignissen. The global epidemic spread began in the late 1970s, AIDS was first recognized in the 1981st According to the World Health Organization (WHO [1]) lived in 2015 about 36.9 million people, including 2.6 million children worldwide with HIV. Nearly half are unaware that they are infected. In 2014, 1.2 million died and 2 million were newly infected. Most new infections (95%) occur in developing countries, more than half of women and one in seven in children <15 years. In many sub-Saharan Africa the incidence is compared with the very high rates of a decade ago significantly. In the United States in 2012 estimated 1.2 million people have ? 13 years of age living with HIV infection; HIV has not been diagnosed in about 12.8% of them. About 50,000 new cases are estimated each year in the United States. In 2010 (the latest year for this data), there were 47,500 new cases. Nearly two-thirds of the new infections occurred in gay and bisexual men and eight times as many cases occurred / African-Americans for black than for whites (2). AIDS AIDS is defined as one or more of the following findings HIV infection that leads to one of certain diseases (AIDS-defining illnesses [3]) A CD4 + T lymphocyte (helper cell) cell count of <200 / ul A CD4 + cell content of ? 14% AIDS-defining diseases are Kaposi's sarcoma (face) © Springer Science + Business Media var model = {thumbnailUrl: '/-/media/manual/professional/images/338_kaposi_sarcoma_slide_3_springer_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350' imageUrl: '/ - / media / manual / professional / images / 338_kaposi_sarcoma_slide_3_springer_hi ? Gh_de.jpg lang = en & thn = 0 ', title:' Kaposi's sarcoma (face) 'description:' u003Ca id = "v38396539 " class = ""anchor "" u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = ""para "" u003e u003cp u003eDieses photo shows the Kaposi's sarcoma on the face

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