Haemophilus Infections

Haemophilus sp. causes numerous slight and serious infections such. As bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, cellulitis, and epiglottitis. The diagnosis is made by means of cultural pathogen detection and serotyping. Treatment is with antibiotics.

Many Haemophilus sp. are part of the physiological respiratory flora and rarely cause disease. Pathogenic strains droplets pass through inhalation or direct contact in the upper respiratory tract. In non-immune populations, there is a rapid spread. Children, especially men, people with darker skin color and Native Americans have the highest risk of severe infection. Cramped living conditions and attending daycare predispose to infection, as well as an immune deficiency, asplenia and sickle cell disease.

Haemophilus sp. causes numerous slight and serious infections such. As bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, otitis media, cellulitis, and epiglottitis. The diagnosis is made by means of cultural pathogen detection and serotyping. Treatment is with antibiotics. Many Haemophilus sp. are part of the physiological respiratory flora and rarely cause disease. Pathogenic strains droplets pass through inhalation or direct contact in the upper respiratory tract. In non-immune populations, there is a rapid spread. Children, especially men, people with darker skin color and Native Americans have the highest risk of severe infection. Cramped living conditions and attending daycare predispose to infection, as well as an immune deficiency, asplenia and sickle cell disease. There are various pathogenic Haemophilus species. Most commonly, H. influenzae is found that consists of 6 different types of capsules (a-f) as well as numerous nichtbekapselten, nichttypisierbaren types. Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against H. influenzae type B, most cases of severe, invasive disease caused by capsular type B. Haemophilus sp. caused diseases H. influenzae causes many infections of childhood, incl. meningitis, bacteremia, septic arthritis, pneumonia, tracheobronchitis, otitis media, conjunctivitis, sinusitis and acute epiglottitis. These infections and endocarditis and urinary tract infections can occur, but much less frequently in adults. These diseases are discussed elsewhere in the MSD Manual. Nontypeable H. influenzae strains cause mainly mucosal infections (eg. As otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis). Occasionally nichtbekapselte strains cause invasive infections in children, but they can cause infections in adults up to half of the severe H. influenzae. H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius (formerly known as H. aegyptius) can cause mucopurulent conjunctivitis and “Brazilian purpuric fever”. H. ducreyi is the causative agent desweichen chancre. H. influenzae and H. para aphrophilus are rare causes of bacteremia, endocarditis and brain abscess. Diagnosis Sometimes cultures serotyping The diagnosis of Haemophilus infection is provided by cultural pathogen detection in blood and other body fluids. Isolated strains that play a role in invasive disease should be serotyped. Therapy Various antibiotics depending on the location and severity of the infection, the treatment of Haemophilus infection depends on the type and location of the infection in invasive disease doxycycline, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and carbapenems 2nd and 3rd generation are applied. The Hib vaccine has led to a sharp reduction in Bakteriämierate. Seriously ill children have hospitalized after initiation of antibiotic therapy for 24 hours and isolated (contact and airborne insulation). The choice of antibiotic is aimed especially after the site of infection and requires sensitivity testing; many isolates in the United States form beta-lactamase (eg.,> 50% are resistant to ampicillin). In invasive diseases incl. Meningitis cefotaxime or ceftriaxone is recommended. For less severe infections, oral cephalosporins (except cephalexin), macrolides and amoxicillin / clavulanate most effective. (See individual diseases for specific recommendations.) Cefotaxime and ceftriaxone eliminate the respiratory carriage of H. influenzae, but other antibiotics used for systemic infections are not as reliable in this regard. That is why children should be given with a systemic infection that were not treated with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone, rifampin immediately after treatment and before the resumption of contact with other children. Prevention Hib conjugate vaccines are for children ? 2 months available and reduced invasive infections (eg. As meningitis, epiglottitis, bacteremia by 99%.) The primary vaccination is done at the age of 2, 4 and 6 months or at the age of 2 and 4 months depending on the vaccine. A booster dose at age 12-15 months is recommended. Household contacts may be asymptomatic H. influenzae carrier. Not or incompletely vaccinated, living in the same household <4 years have an increased risk of disease and should receive one dose of vaccine. In addition, all household members (except pregnant women) prophylactic rifampicin 600 mg should (20 mg / kg in children ? 1 month; 10 mg / kg in children <1 month) p.o. get 1 times a day for 4 days. Contact people in kindergartens and day care centers should receive prophylaxis if ? 2 cases of invasive disease occurred in 60 days. The benefits of prophylaxis with only a reported case has not yet been confirmed. Several important points species of Haemophilus are pathogenic; the most common is H. influenzae. H. influenzae causes many types of mucosal and, less frequently, invasive infections, especially in children. The choice of antibiotic depends strongly on the localization of infection and requires susceptibility testing. Hib conjugate vaccines that ? 2 months as part of routine childhood vaccinations are given to children who, invasive infections reduced by 99%. Close contacts may be asymptomatic H. influenzae carriers and they are usually given for the prevention of rifampin.

Health Life Media Team

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