Gripal Infect

(Infection of the upper respiratory tract; rhinitis)

A viral cold is an acute, usually not febrile, self-limited viral infection, the symptoms of upper respiratory tract such. As rhinorrhea, causes coughing and sore throat. The diagnosis is made clinically. Hand washing helps prevent the spread. Treatment is supportive.

About 50% of all flu infections are caused by one of the> 100 rhinovirus serotypes. Also coronaviruses can cause outbreaks and infections caused by influenza and parainfluenza viruses, enteroviruses, Adenovien, RSV viruses and metapneumoviruses can also manifest itself as a flu infection, particularly in patients with a reinfection.

A viral cold is an acute, usually not febrile, self-limited viral infection, the symptoms of upper respiratory tract such. As rhinorrhea, causes coughing and sore throat. The diagnosis is made clinically. Hand washing helps prevent the spread. Treatment is supportive. About 50% of all flu infections are caused by one of the> 100 rhinovirus serotypes. Also coronaviruses can cause outbreaks and infections caused by influenza and parainfluenza viruses, enteroviruses, Adenovien, RSV viruses and metapneumoviruses can also manifest itself as a flu infection, particularly in patients with a reinfection. Rhinovirus infections are frequent in autumn and spring before, less frequently in winter. Rhino viruses are very efficiently transmitted by direct contact from person to person, but transmission is possible even by aerosols large particles. Most effective infection is parried by the presence of specific neutralizing antibodies in serum and secretions caused by previous exposure to the same or a closely related virus. The disposition of influenza infections is not increased by exposure to cold, the health and nutritional status of the host or abnormalities of the upper respiratory tract (eg. B. enlarged tonsils or adenoids). Symptoms and complaints After an incubation period of 24-72 hours to start the complaints with a “scratch” or pain in the throat, followed by sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and malaise. The body temperature is usually normal, especially when the pathogen is a Rhino or coronavirus. The nasal secretions are watery and abundant during the first few days, but then mucous and purulent. Mucopurulent secretions are not indicative of a bacterial superinfection. The cough is usually only slightly, but holds up to the second week. Most complaints due uncomplicated influenza infection disappear within 10 days. Colds can aggravate asthma and chronic bronchitis. Purulent sputum or significant symptoms of lower respiratory tract do not occur in rhinovirus infections usually. Because of the viral infection or by a secondary bacterial infection may cause a purulent sinusitis and otitis media. Diagnosis Clinical Evaluation The diagnosis is usually made clinically and presumptively without further diagnosis. The most important differential diagnosis is an allergic rhinitis. Therapy Symptomatic therapy Specific treatment is not there. Antipyretics and analgesics can act antipyretic and relieve sore throat. Nasal sprays can reduce nasal obstruction. Topical nasal decongestants are more effective than oral, but the use of topical substances over> 3-5 days can lead to increased swelling ( “rebound” effect). The rhinorrhea may be improved through administration of the 1st generation antihistamines (eg chlorpheniramine.) Or intranasal ipratropium bromide (two sprays of a 0.03% solution of 2 to 3 times a day); However, these agents should be avoided in the elderly and people with benign prostatic hypertrophy or glaucoma. Antihistamines 1st generation often lead to fatigue, antihistamines 2nd generation (nichtsedierend) but are ineffective in treating influenza infection. Antihistamines and decongestants are not recommended for children <4 years. Zinc supplements, Echinacea and vitamin C were examined for efficacy in the treatment of influenza infection, but a benefit was demonstrated for any of these agents. Prevention vaccines are not available. Polyvalent bacterial vaccines, citrus fruits, vitamins, UV light, glycol aerosols and other home remedies do not prevent flu infection. Through hand hygiene and the use of surface disinfectants spread in a contaminated environment can be reduced. Antibiotics should not be given unless there are clear indications of a secondary bacterial infection. In patients with chronic lung diseases, antibiotics may be given less restrictive.

Health Life Media Team

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