Glucosamine is a precursor of several cartilage components. It is derived from the chitin of shellfish (such as crab, oysters and crabs) and taken in the form of tablets or capsules, often as glucosamine, but sometimes also as glucosamine. Attempts have been made to find alternative renewable sources, including metabolically modified mushrooms and E. coli (1). Glucosamine is often taken with chondroitin sulfate.
(See also nutritional supplements Overview.) Glucosamine is a precursor of several cartilage components. It is derived from the chitin of shellfish (such as crab, oysters and crabs) and taken in the form of tablets or capsules, often as glucosamine, but sometimes also as glucosamine. Attempts have been made to find alternative renewable sources, including metabolically modified mushrooms and E. coli (1). Glucosamine is often taken with chondroitin sulfate. Allegations glucosamine to relieve pain due to osteoarthritis, possibly both analgesic and disease-modifying effects. the mechanism of action also. The mechanism of action of glucosamine is unknown but may be related to the improved glycosaminoglycan synthesis due to the sulphate content. The dosage of glucosamine in all its forms is 500 mg po 3 times daily receipts Evidence supports the use of glucosamine sulfate from the Rotta Research Laboratory for the treatment of mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee, when it is adhered to at least 6 months (2-3). Other formulations have yet to be rigorously evaluated. What is less well described, what role could play glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of severe osteoarthritis in the knee area or elsewhere. The Gluck Samin / chondroitin Arthritis Intervention- trial (GAIT), shows a large, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial of 1,583 patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee that alone and in combination with chondroitin sulfate (400 mg three times daily ), glucosamine hydrochloride (500 mg three times a day has not effectively reduced) pain in all patient groups. However, found an exploratory analysis pain relief with the combination therapy in a subset of patients with moderate to severe pain in the knee (4). A recent review of randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of glucosamine on chronic back pain, showed that the data were insufficient to demonstrate the benefits of glucosamine or exclude (5). Side effects Allergies (if to shellfish allergic patients are taking such extracts), indigestion, fatigue, insomnia, headaches, sensitivity to light and nail changes are possible. Patients with chronic liver disease should also, if possible, avoid glucosamine, due to a potential hepatotoxicity when glucosamine is taken with or without chondroitin (6). Drug interactions There are no known significant interactions. Notes on glucosamine Liu L, Liu Y, Shin HD, et al. Microbial production of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine: advances and perspectives. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 97 (14): 6149-6158, 2013. Wu D, Huang Y, Gu Y, et al. Efficacies of different preparations of glucosamine for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Int J Clin Pract 67 (6): 585-594, 2013. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, et al. Glucosamine therapy for Treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD002946, 2005. Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. N Engl J Med 354 (8): 795-808, 2006. Sodha R, Sivanadarajah N, Alam M. The use of glucosamine for chronic low back pain: a systematic review of randomized control trials. BMJ Open 3 (6). pii, 2013. Cerda C, Bruguera M, Parés A. Hepatotoxicity associated with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in patients with chronic liver disease. World J Gastroenterol 19 (32): 5381-5384,, 2013.