Dyslexia is the general term for reading and spelling disorder (LRS). The diagnosis is made in medical and psychological examinations based on an assessment of the intellect, learning ability, language and speech. The treatment is based primarily on a teaching concept for the recognition of words and phonemes.
Dyslexia is a specific type of learning disability. Learning disorders include difficulties in reading, math, spelling, written expression, handwriting and use of verbal and nonverbal language (see table: General Specific Learning Disabilities) a.
Dyslexia is the general term for reading and spelling disorder (LRS). The diagnosis is made in medical and psychological examinations based on an assessment of the intellect, learning ability, language and speech. The treatment is based primarily on a teaching concept for the recognition of words and phonemes. Dyslexia is a specific type of learning disability. Learning disorders include difficulties in reading, math, spelling, written expression, handwriting and use of verbal and nonverbal language (see table: General Specific Learning Disabilities) a. There is no universally accepted definition of dyslexia, so the incidence of the disease is unknown. Approximately 15% of children receive remedial classes because of a reading disability, of these have about half lasting difficulties. Dyslexia is more common in boys than in girls, but there is no evidence that gender is a risk factor. The inability to understand derived spelling rules, is part of dyslexia. Affected children find it difficult to determine or out of the type of letters in a word word roots or stems. Reading difficulties without dyslexia are usually caused by a lack of understanding of language or low intelligence. Disturbances of visual perception and pathological eye movements also do not belong to dyslexia. But these disorders can complicate the words learning. Etiology Not blurred vision, but hearing problems will be discussed at the time as the main causes of reading difficulties. Insufficient phoneme recognition causes a defective According discrimination -erinnerung, Mixed and analysis. Dyslexia can affect both the writing as well as the understanding of written language. Moreover, both are limited by the lack of memory for Heard and by deficits in language production, word naming and word finding. Behind it are often hidden weaknesses in verbal expression. Pathophysiology dyslexia occurs to run in families. Children with a family history are at higher risk of disease. Because there are patients with dyslexia changes in the brain, it is believed that dyslexia is primarily a cortical dysfunction that comes from a congenital neurological aberration. Lesions that affect the integration and interaction of certain brain functions are a possible cause question. Most researchers agree that dyslexia has a connection with the left hemisphere and impairment and impairment of speech Association (sensory Wernicke’s language center), sound and language education (Broca motoric language center) and the connection of the two language centers via the fasciculus arcuatus present , Disorders in the area of ??the dentate Annularis, the medial Okzipitalbereichs and the right hemisphere have been associated with word recognition disorders. Research results indicate a certain plasticity of the brain as a result of Trainigsmaßnahmen. Brain areas. Symptoms and complaints Dyslexia can manifest as delayed language ability articulation difficulties difficulty to remember the terms of letters, numbers and colors Children with disorders of phonological processing often find it difficult to mix sounds, rhyming words to each other, the positions of a certain sound within to identify a word to disassemble words and turn the sound sequence within a word. Delays in the choice of words in finding synonyms or in the naming of letters or images are early symptoms. Problems of short-term memory and difficulties in reproducing what is heard in the correct order are common. Less than 20% of children with dyslexia have difficulty with visual requirements of reading. However, it confused some kids letters and words that are similar or they have difficulty in recognizing spoken letter sequences in written word or identify (phoneme-grapheme connections). Changes of letters or visual confusion often occur and are related to the difficulties in memory and play together, which lead to those affected Forgot similar letters and words and confused. is from DWhen then b, of m w, h is from nx, from “what” is “saw” from “on” is “no”. Such distortions are normal in children at an age of <8 years. Dyslexia is a life-long-standing problem; However, most children develop sufficient functional reading skills over time. Other children do not achieve adequate reading skills later. Diagnostic reading tests study of passive and active language skills and auditory psychological tests Most children with dyslexia are identified only in kindergarten or first grade, when they start with the learning of symbolic characters. Children who have a positive history for a language delay and who may feel uncomfortable with the words learning at the end of the first class who do not read according to their other verbal and intellectual skills should be tested for dyslexia out. The best diagnostic clue is when the first graders can not learn to read using traditional or typical methods; but is found especially in this stage, a wide variation. The detection of a phonological processing disorder is important for diagnosis. Consists in children suspected of having dyslexia tests of intellect, speech and language, hearing and cognitive and psychological tests should be performed to identify possible strengths and weaknesses and the preferred learning style. These studies may be requested from the school, the teachers or the parents. After the tests, they try to bestow the child the most appropriate teaching methods. Reading tests check the child's ability to recognize words and analyze to read fluently, understand one heard or read text and the size of their vocabulary. Speech and hearing tests assess problems in phonological processing spoken language. Receptive and expressive language features are also evaluated. Cognitive abilities such as attention, memory and thinking are the subject of the investigation. Psychological tests assess the influence of emotional stress factors on the reading ability. A complete family history of mental illness and emotional burdens will be charged. The doctor should check either in their own practice or by referral to the appropriate specialist that no vision or hearing problems exist. The neurological examination can identify neurodevelopmental delays and small neurological diseases and other diseases exclude (seizures). Educational treatment interventions The treatment combines direct and indirect methods of word recognition and word recognition components. The direct method covers the phonemic component of speech comprehension independent of other methods of reading support. The indirect method includes the phonemes in the reading process with one. Learning to read is the entire word and the language or follows a hierarchy of ability of phone connection to the word, the word to the sentence. Multisensory approaches that involve learning whole words and the integration of visual, aural and tactile method for learning sounds, words and sentences are then recommended. Teaching methods to promote subcomponents lead to the children to mix sounds to form words to be divided into segments and words to identify sounds within a word. Through this type of learning is to enable the children to grasp the gist to answer questions to bring out facts and details and to facilitate reading. With the help of computers, many children can not find words within a text, spell words and write texts. Compensatory strategies such as using audio books and computers can help children in later elementary school classes to master the learning content, while continuing to expand its Lesefährigkeiten. Other treatments (optometric training, awareness training, training for the integration of what is heard) and drug therapy are not secured and are not recommended. Summary Dyslexia can affect both the writing as well as the understanding of written language. In addition, difficulties of auditory memory, the linguistic expression and the word memory may be present. Dyslexia is probably due to congenital neurological abnormalities in the left hemisphere of the brain that is responsible for the sound and language processing and the connections between sounds and voice. Affected children may have a delayed language acquisition, but sometimes is the first indicator is the inability to complete successfully the usual literacy classes in elementary school. Cognitive, mental, auditory and visual disorders should be excluded. Various educational measures are indicated.