Drug Interactions

Drug interactions are changes in the efficacy of the product due to a recent previous or concurrent use of one or more other drugs (drug-drug interaction) or because of ingestion (nutrient-drug interactions – interaction between nutrients and drugs), or intake of food supplements ( dietary supplement-drug interactions – Some possible interactions of Nahrungsmittelergänzugen *)

A drug-drug interaction may decrease or increase the efficacy of one or both drugs. Clinically significant interactions are often predictable and generally undesirable (s. Some drugs with potentially serious drug-drug interactions *). This can result in adverse effects or treatment failure. Rarely doctors can use predictable drug-drug interactions in order to produce a desired therapeutic effect. Co-administration of lopinavir and ritonavir results, for example in patients with HIV infection in an altered metabolism of lopinavir and increases the concentration and efficacy of serum lopinavir.

Drug interactions are changes in the efficacy of the product due to a recent previous or concurrent use of one or more other drugs (drug-drug interaction) or because of ingestion (nutrient-drug interactions – interaction between nutrients and drugs), or intake of food supplements ( dietary supplement-drug interactions – Some possible interactions of Nahrungsmittelergänzugen *) a drug-drug interaction can reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs or raise. Clinically significant interactions are often predictable and generally undesirable (s. Some drugs with potentially serious drug-drug interactions *). This can result in adverse effects or treatment failure. Rarely doctors can use predictable drug-drug interactions in order to produce a desired therapeutic effect. Co-administration of lopinavir and ritonavir results, for example in patients with HIV infection in an altered metabolism of lopinavir and increases the concentration and efficacy of serum lopinavir. Some drugs with potentially serious drug-drug interactions * mechanism examples Narrow margin of safety † antiarrhythmic drugs (eg., Quinidine) cytostatic agents (eg., Methotrexate) digoxin lithium theophylline warfarin Increased metabolism by certain liver enzymes Alprazolam Amitriptyline atorvastatin carbamazepine clozapine corticosteroids cyclosporine diazepam HIV protease inhibitors imipramine lovastatin phenytoin Sildenafil midazolam, olanzapine, simvastatin, tacrolimus The Tadalafil ophyllin triazolam Vardenafil Warfarin inhibition of certain liver enzymes ‡ aprepitant boceprevir cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin cobicistat conivaptan diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine itraconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole ritonavir Telaprevir telithromycin verapamil voriconazole induction of certain liver enzymes barbiturates (z. As phenobarbital) bosentan carbamazepine phenytoin efavirenz rifabutin rifampin St. John’s Wort * Each drug, which is used simultaneously with any of these drugs should be thoroughly checked for possible interactions. † Even when used alone, these drugs can have serious adverse effects. The concomitant use of another drug that enhances the effect of these drugs increases the risk of adverse effects in addition. ‡ The inhibition can also occur after ingestion of grapefruit products. In therapeutic doubling two drugs with similar properties are taken simultaneously, resulting in an additive effect. For example, when a benzodiazepine is taken for anxiety and before bedtime another benzodiazepine for insomnia, it can have a cumulative effect and toxic. Drug interactions include pharmacodynamics pharmacokinetics In pharmacodynamic interactions, a drug alters the sensitivity or responsiveness of tissues compared with another drug, by having the same (agonist) or blocking (antagonistic) effect. These effects usually occur at the receptor level, but can also occur intracellularly. In pharmacokinetic interactions, the drug usually changes the absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism or excretion of another drug. Therefore, the amount and persistence of the available drug at the site of the receptor change. Pharmacokinetic interactions vary the amount and duration, but not the kind of effect. Frequently it can be foreseen on the basis of knowledge of the respective drugs are discovered through clinical signs for monitoring of drug concentrations or. Minimizing drug interactions doctors should be aware of all the medicines take their patients present, even those that have been prescribed by other doctors, as well as all non-prescription medicines, herbal products and dietary supplements. It is also recommended to consult patient relevant to diet and alcohol consumption. There should be as few drugs as possible prescribed in the lowest dose and for the shortest period possible. For all ingested medicines both the desirable and the undesirable effects should be determined because these effects include the spectrum of interactions generally. If possible drugs should be used with a wide safety margin, so that unforeseen interactions do not cause toxicity. Some interactions (effects that are influenced by enzyme induction z. B.) only after a week or later identified. Patients should, especially after a change in medication, be monitored for adverse effects and monitored. In case of any unexpected problems drug interactions should be considered as a possible cause. Upon the occurrence of unexpected clinical responses prescribers should determine the serum concentration of selected ingested drugs, consult the literature or an expert on drug interactions and adjust the dose until the desired effect is achieved. If a dose adjustment proved to be ineffective, the product should be replaced by another that has no interaction with other drugs to be occupied.

Health Life Media Team

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