Substance use in adolescents ranging from experimental use to serious substance use disorders (overview of substance-related disorders). The consequences range from mild to life threatening, depending on the substance, the circumstances and the frequency of administration. However, the occasional use may expose young people at increased risk serious damage, including overdose, car accidents, violent behavior and the consequences of sexual contact (z. B. pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections).
(Overview of substance-related disorders.) Substance use among adolescents ranging from experimental use to serious substance use disorders (overview of substance-related disorders). The consequences range from mild to life threatening, depending on the substance, the circumstances and the frequency of administration. However, the occasional use may expose young people at increased risk serious damage, including overdose, car accidents, violent behavior and the consequences of sexual contact (z. B. pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections). Young people take a substance from a variety of reasons: to escape the perceived pressure (. Eg by parents or peers) To challenge authority To experience thrills and take risks Additional risk factors include poor self-control, lack of parental supervision and various mental disorders (eg. as attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder [attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADD, ADHD)] and depression [depression in Children and adolescents]). Parents should also be clear what a powerful influence they exert through their own attitudes and their use of alcohol, tobacco, prescription drugs and other substances for their children. Certain substances Alcohol Alcohol consumption is very common and is the substance that is taken most often by young people. To 12th grade> 70% of young people try alcohol, and nearly half are considered to be current drinkers (alcohol in the past month have consumed). Heavy alcohol consumption is also widespread. Almost 90% of all alcohol being consumed by young people is drunk during a “binge”, which exposes them to a risk of accidents, injuries, unwanted sexual activity and other bad outputs. Society and the media provide drinking is acceptable or even desirable. Despite these influences can achieve positive results by parents to communicate clear expectations for their young in terms of drinking, by consistently setting limits and monitoring. On the other hand, young people whose family members drink excessively, thinking that this behavior is acceptable. Some teenagers who try alcohol later develop an alcohol use disorder (alcohol-related diseases and rehabilitation). Known risk factors for developing a disease include the onset of drinking at a young age and genetics. Young people who have a family member with an alcohol use disorder should be informed about their increased risk werden.Tabak The rates of tobacco use among young people increased in the 1990s and 2000s dramatically, but have now reached a plateau. The majority of adults who smoke cigarettes begin during adolescence smoking. If young people do not try cigarettes before the age of 19 years, it is very unlikely that they will be as adults to smokers. There are 10-year-old children who are already experimenting with cigarettes. Almost a fifth of ninth graders report that they smoke regularly. The strongest risk factors for smoking among adolescents have parents who smoke (the strongest predictive factor), or peers and role models (eg. As celebrities) who smoke. Other risk factors include poor school performance high-risk behavior (eg excessive dieting – especially among girls;. Brawls and drunken driving – especially in boys; consumption of alcohol or other drugs) Poor problem solving skills availability of cigarettes Lack of self-esteem adolescents, tobacco use in other forms. About 3.3% of those aged 18 and older and about 7.9% of secondary school students consume smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco can chewed (chewing) between the lower lip and the gum placed ( “dipping tobacco”) or in the nose inhaled (snuff) are. Pipe smoking is in the USA quite rare, even though the proportion among students of middle and high school increases in 1999. The proportion of people aged over 12 years who smokes cigars has declined. Parents can help prevent their teenagers from smoking and smokeless tobacco products, by being positive role models (ie by not smoking or chewing), speak openly about the dangers of tobacco and youth who already smoke or chew, encourage quit trying to support them, including in the process of looking for medical help if needed (smoking cessation: smoking cessation in children) .Other substances the marijuana use (marijuana (cannabis)) increases and has overtaken tobacco use recently. Prescription drugs, especially opioid analgesics, anxiolytic substances and stimulants, and non-prescription medicines, especially dextromethorphan (which is present in many cough relievers) are now of young people abused more frequently than every other substances other than alcohol and marijuana. The drug inhalation (Volatile solvents) is also a problem, especially among young adolescents. Many of these psychoactive substances addictive. If the beginning of drug use by young people will be moved into adulthood, the worst problems that prevented associated with drug use, as well as to spend the whole life with an addiction disease the risk can. To the other substances that are abused, amphetamines and methamphetamine, cocaine, anabolic steroids, opioids, and the so-called. Party, dance and sex drugs or “date-rape drugs” (such Methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA or ecstasy], ketamine and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid [GHB]). In 2007, about 47% of twelfth graders had taken these substances at some time in their lives. About 2% of twelfth graders have used anabolic steroids in their lives (Anabolic Steroids). Although the intake of steroids among athletes is more common are people who are not athletes, not immune. The intake of anabolic steroids is associated with a number of side effects, including the premature closure of the growth plates, resulting in permanent short stature. Other side effects are common in both adolescents and adults. Diagnosis Clinical evaluation, including routine screening Among the behaviors that should encourage parental concerns regarding a possible drug abuse, are finding drugs or drug paraphernalia capricious behavior depression or mood swings A friends change Worsening school performance Loss of interest in hobbies screening doctors should check-ups on the use of perform alcohol and other drugs at every screening appointment. Moreover, they should inform the adolescents and their parents about the proper handling of prescription and nonprescription drugs. The Crafft questionnaire is a validated screening tool. Adolescents with ? 2 positive responses require further evaluation. Doctors ask young people have if they do the following things or not do (like “car”) C: Whether they are ever ridden in a car (including itself) is led by someone who was intoxicated on drugs or. R (such as “relax”): Whether they drink alcohol or take drugs to relax, to be more satisfied with themselves, or in order to belong A (such as “alone”): Whether they ever drunk alcohol or have taken drugs when they were alone F (such as “forget”): Whether they have ever forgotten what they did while drinking or drug company F (such as “friends”): Whether they were ever asked of family members or friends to drink less or drugs to take. T (such as “trouble”): Whether drug testing drug testing (drug testing) have come before drinking or drug company in difficulty may be useful, but have significant limitations. If parents request a drug test, they can create a confrontational atmosphere that makes it difficult to obtain an accurate history of substance use and to form a therapeutic alliance with the young people. Screening tests are usually of rapid qualitative urine immunoassays that are associated with a high number of false-positive and false-negative results. In addition, the tests can not give information about the frequency or intensity of the substance means consumption. So you can not determine the severity of abuse. Physicians must therefore use other measures (eg. As a thorough medical history, questionnaires) to determine the extent to which the drug affects the lives of each youth. Given these concerns and constraints, it is often advisable to consult an expert on drug abuse to determine whether drug testing in a given situation are justified. Therapy behavioral therapy, which is adapted to adolescents Typically, young people are referred to with a moderate or severe drug addiction for further assessment and treatment. As a rule, the same behavioral therapies that are used for adults with substance use disorders can (overview of substance-dependent diseases), are also used for youth. However, these therapies should be adjusted. Young people should not be treated in the same programs as adults; they should receive services from programs for young people and therapists with experience in the treatment of adolescents with substance use disorders.