Dissociative amnesia, a form of dissociative disorder to which the failure is one to remember important personal information, which can not be explained by normal forgetfulness. It is usually caused by trauma or stress. The diagnosis is a history to rule out other causes of amnesia. Treatment consists of psychotherapy, sometimes in combination with hypnosis or drug-assisted calls.
The lost information would normally be part of the consciousness and would be defined as autobiographical memory, d. H. one’s own life story.
Dissociative amnesia, a form of dissociative disorder to which the failure is one to remember important personal information, which can not be explained by normal forgetfulness. It is usually caused by trauma or stress. The diagnosis is a history to rule out other causes of amnesia. Treatment consists of psychotherapy, sometimes in combination with hypnosis or drug-assisted calls. The lost information would normally be part of the consciousness and would be defined as autobiographical memory, d. H. one’s own life story. Although the forgotten information for consciousness can not be accessible, they continue to influence behavior. . (Eg a woman refuses to ride the elevator because she was raped in this, even though she can not remember the rape Dissociative amnesia is probably underdiagnosed Prevalence is well established;.. In a small US community study, the 12-month prevalence was 1.8% (1% in men, 2.6% in women). the amnesia seems by their own or witnessed traumatic or stressful experiences (eg. as physical abuse or sexual abuse, rape, war experiences, genocide, exposure to natural disasters, death of a loved one, financial difficulties) or huge internal conflicts (eg. as severe anxiety because guilt seemingly intractable interpersonal difficulties, delinquency) to be caused. symptoms and signs the main symptom of dissociative amnesia is memory loss, the has nothing to do with normal forgetfulness. The amnesia can be selectively Localized Generalized seizures in rare cases is accompanied dissociative amnesia of targeted travel or confused wandering, ( “escape” from the Latin word Fugere) the joint so-called. A limited amnesia means that one is not able to remember a particular event or events or a specific period; these memory lapses are usually due to trauma or stress. For example, patients can use the months or years that they have been abused as a child, forget or spent in intense combat days. The amnesia is manifested not longer than hours or days after the traumatic period. Usually, the forgotten period that can last from minutes to decades, clearly demarcated. Typically, patients experience one or more episodes of memory loss. Selective amnesia includes the forgetting of only some parts of an event for a certain period of time or only a part of a traumatic event. Patients may have a localized and selective amnesia. For generalized amnesia patients forget their identity and life story-z. As who they are, where they went, to whom they spoke, and what they did, said, thought, felt and heard. Some patients can not rely on well-learned skills and lose information about the world that they had earlier. A generalized dissociative amnesia is rare; it is more common among war veterans; People who have been sexually abused and in people who are experiencing extreme stress or conflict. The onset is usually sudden. Beisystematisierter amnesia forget patient information in a particular category such. As all information about a particular person or through their family. With continuous amnesia patients forget each new event as it occurs. Most patients are only partly or not at all aware that they have gaps in their memory. They will their only aware of when personal identity is lost or when circumstances make them aware-z. B. when others tell them events or ask for this, at which they can not remember. The patient may appear confused shortly after an amnesia. Some are very stressed, others indifferent. If those who are aware of their amnesia not clear, seek psychiatric help, they do probably for other reasons. Patients have difficulty building and maintaining relationships. Some patients report flashbacks that occur in PTSD (PTSD); Flashbacks may alternate with amnesia for the contents of the flashbacks. Some patients develop PTSD later, especially when the traumatic or stressful events are aware that caused her amnesia. Depressive and functional neurological symptoms are common, just as there are suicidal and other self-destructive behaviors. The risk of suicidal behavior can be increased when the amnesia resolves suddenly and patients are overwhelmed by the traumatic memories. Dissociative fugue dissociative fugue is an unusual phenomenon which sometimes occurs in dissociative amnesia. The dissociative fugue frequently manifests as a sudden, unexpected, purposeful travel away from home or as confused wanderings. Patients leave after they have lost their usual identity, her family and her profession. A fugue may last from hours to months, sometimes longer. If the gap is short, it may just seem that they have vesäumt some work or coming home late. If the joint takes several days or more, they can go far from home, take on a new name and identity, a new job starting with no knowledge of a change in her life to have. Many fugues appear to represent the concealed fulfillment of wishes or the only permitted medium to escape from severe distress or embarrassment v. a. to be for people with a rigid conscience. So a financially desperate executives example, would leave their hectic lives to live in the country as a laborer on a farm. During the fugue, the patient can function normally and act, or at most be easily confused. However, if the joint ends, say the patients that they suddenly find themselves in the new situation without memory of how they got there or what they have done. They often feel shame, discomfort, sadness and / or depression. Some are afraid, especially if they do not remember what happened during the fugue. These phenomena can attract the attention of medical or legal authority. Most people finally remember their past identity and their lives, even if remembering can be a lengthy process; Very few remember little or nothing from their past. Often the Fugue is only diagnosed when the patient zurückkehen abruptly due diligence before the Fugue and suffer rediscover themselves unfamiliar in them circumstances. The diagnosis is usually retrospectively based on the documentation of the circumstances before leaving, the change of sites itself and the construction of another life. Diagnosis Clinical criteria The diagnosis of dissociative amnesia is made clinically based on the criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5): Patients can opt out of important personal information (usually trauma or stress-related) remember that would not normally be lost in ordinary forgetfulness. Symptoms cause significant distress or impair significantly the social or occupational functioning. Also, the symptoms can not be better explained by the effects of a drug or another disorder (eg. As partial complex seizures, traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, another dissociative disorder). Diagnosis requires a medical and psychiatric examination to rule out other possible causes. The initial examination should include the following MRI to rule out structural causes EEG to rule out a seizure disorder blood and urine tests to rule out toxic causes such as illegal drug use Psychological tests can help to identify the kind of dissociative experiences accurately. Sometimes forecast memories quickly return again as it can happen when patients are taken out of the traumatic or stressful situation (eg. As combat). In other cases remains amnesia, particularly in patients with dissociative fugue, for a long time. The ability to dissociation may decrease with age. Most patients recover their missing memories back, and the amnesia is resolved. However, some könnnen never reconstruct their mislaid past. The prognosis depends mainly on the living conditions of the patient, in particular stresses and conflicts associated with amnesia, as well as the whole mental adaptability of the patient. Treatment To the memories retrieve: supportive environment and sometimes hypnosis or a drug-induced hypnotic state psychotherapy to deal with problems associated with the recovered memories Supportive treatment of dissociative amnesia is usually appropriate when only the memory of a very short period of time lost went, especially if the patients have apparently no need to bring back the memory of a painful event. The treatment of a severe amnesia begins with the creation of a safe and supportive environment. This measure alone is often sufficient to gradually fill the gaps in memory. Should not be the case or the memories urgently need to be retrieved, a survey of patients under hypnosis or rarely can be successful even in a drug-induced (barbiturates or benzodiazepines) semi hypnotic state. These measures must be carried out carefully, because the traumatic circumstances that have stimulated the memory loss, will probably reminded again and shake the patient. The interviewer must also formulate his questions carefully so that it suggests not one (never happened found) event and run the risk of creating a false memory. the memories are as well, which were recovered with such procedures can be established only by confirmation from the outside. However, regardless of the historical accuracy is the best possible filling the gaps in memory of therapeutic benefit to restore the continuity of identity and self-esteem of the patient and create a coherent story. Once the amnesia is lifted, helps the treatment with the following measures: It gives the trauma or conflict underlying meanings, corrects problems associated with the amnesic episode empowers patients to continue with their lives if patients have experienced a dissociative fugue can psychotherapy – are used to try to restore the memory – sometimes with hypnosis or medication-based survey; these efforts are often unsuccessful. Regardless of a psychiatrist can help patients find out how they can use the different situations, conflicts and emotions that triggered the Fugue handle, and thus improved developing future adjustments and solutions that help to prevent the recurrence of a fugue.