Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an acute throat or cutaneous infection primarily caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and rarely by other, less common Corynebacterium sp. The symptoms consist of either non-specific skin infections or pseudomembranous pharyngitis followed by exotoxinbedingten damage to the myocardium and neurons. An asymptomatic carrier state exists. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by microbiological analysis of the pathogen. The treatment consists of antitoxin and penicillin or erythromycin. In childhood should be routinely vaccinated against diphtheria.

Corynebacterium diphtheria usually infects the nasopharynx (respiratory diphtheria) or the skin.

Diphtheria is an acute throat or cutaneous infection primarily caused by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and rarely by other, less common Corynebacterium sp. The symptoms consist of either non-specific skin infections or pseudomembranous pharyngitis followed by exotoxinbedingten damage to the myocardium and neurons. An asymptomatic carrier state exists. The diagnosis is made clinically and confirmed by microbiological analysis of the pathogen. The treatment consists of antitoxin and penicillin or erythromycin. In childhood should be routinely vaccinated against diphtheria. Corynebacterium diphtheria usually infects the nasopharynx (respiratory diphtheria) or the skin. Diphtheria toxin Only diphtheria strains that have been infected by a ?-phage carrying a gene toxinkodierendes, form a potent toxin. This toxin initially leads to inflammation and necrosis of local tissues and then the heart, nerves and sometimes damage the kidneys. Toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae can lead to infection of the nose and throat area and sometimes systemic disease (eg. As endocarditis, septic arthritis). Epidemiology and transmission The only known reservoir for C. diphtheriae is man. The organism is spread by droplet infection contact with nasopharyngeal secretions contact with infected skin lesions objects (rare) A carrier state is common in endemic areas, but not in developed countries. By vaccination or active infection acquired immunity can not prevent patients are carriers, but most patients with appropriate treatment will not. Patients with clinical disease or asymptomatic carriers can transmit the infection. A poor personal and public hygiene contributes to the spread of cutaneous diphtheria. In the US, the highest incidence rates were reported in the past in countries with significant populations of Native Americans. But currently there is no geographic concentration of cases in the United States. Diphtheria is in many countries in Africa, South America, South and Southeast Asia and the Middle East and Haiti and the Dominican Republic endemic (travel information about diphtheria are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] web site). Diphtheria is now rare in developed countries because childhood vaccinations are i widespread. But after the collapse of the former Soviet Union, the vaccination rates fell into its constituent countries, followed by a significant increase in diphtheria cases. The vulnerability has also increased because booster vaccination rates in adults are declining. Symptoms and signs Symptoms vary depending on where the infection is whether the strain produces toxin Most respiratory infections are caused by toxigenic strains. Cutaneous infections caused by toxigenic strains and nichttoxigene. Toxin is poorly absorbed by the skin, so toxic complications in skin diphtheria are rare. Pharynxinfektion After an average incubation period of 5 days and a prodromal phase of 12-24 h, the patient developed mild sore throat, dysphagia, mild fever and tachycardia. In children, it is more common to nausea, vomiting, chills, headache and fever. When a toxigenic strain is involved, it is in the area of ??the tonsils to form the characteristic membranes. This may initially appear as white, shiny exudates, but will typically be gray, firm, fibrinous and adherent so that it bleeds when they are removed. The local edema can cause visible swelling of the neck (Caesar neck), hoarseness, stridor and dyspnea. The membranes can be up to the larynx, trachea and bronchi spread and can lead to a partial airway obstruction or suddenly detach, which can lead to a complete obstruction. If a large amount of poison is absorbed, severe fatigue, pallor, tachycardia, stupor and coma may occur; Toxemia may pass within 6 to 10 days fatal. A mild illness with sero-bloody or purulent discharge and irritation of the outer nostrils and upper lip occurs in patients who suffer only from a nasal diphtheria. Diphtheria (nasopharyngeal membrane) Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/diphtheria_nasopharyngeal_membrane_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/diphtheria_nasopharyngeal_membrane_high_de.jpg?la = de & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ diphtheria (nasopharyngeal membrane) ‘, description:’ u003Ca id = “v38396478 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eToxigene strains of u003ci u003eCorynebacterium diphtheriae u003c / i u003e can cause throat thick exudates. The exudate is dirty gray and hard

Health Life Media Team

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