Diabetic Retinopathy

Manifestations of diabetic retinopathy include microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, exudates, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. Symptoms usually only at a late stage of the disease. Diagnosis is made by fundoscopy; further details will be determined by color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Treatment includes control of blood sugar and blood pressure. Ocular treatments include retinal laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs (eg. B. ranibizumab, bevacizumab), intraocular corticosteroids, vitrectomy, or a combination of the foregoing.

Manifestations of diabetic retinopathy include microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, exudates, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment. Symptoms usually only at a late stage of the disease. Diagnosis is made by fundoscopy; further details will be determined by color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography. Treatment includes control of blood sugar and blood pressure. Ocular treatments include retinal laser photocoagulation, intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor drugs (eg. B. ranibizumab, bevacizumab), intraocular corticosteroids, vitrectomy, or a combination of the foregoing. Pathophysiology Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, especially in adults of working age. The degree of retinopathy is closely related to duration of diabetes blood glucose blood pressure altitude pregnancy may affect glycemic control and thus worsen the retinopathy. Nonproliferative retinopathy nonproliferative retinopathy (also called background retinopathy) first develops and causes increased capillary permeability, microaneurysms, hemorrhages, exudates, macular ischemia, and macular edema (thickening of the retina caused by leakage of fluid from the capillaries) .Proliferative retinopathy Proliferative retinopathy develops after nonproliferative retinopathy and heavier; it can lead to vitreous hemorrhage and tractive retinal detachment. Proliferative retinopathy is characterized by abnormal new vessel formation (neovascularization) characterized which side of the retina occur on the inner (vitreous), which can be extended to the vitreous cavity and cause vitreous hemorrhage. Neovascularization often associated with präretinalem fibrous connective tissue, which, together with the glass body can contract, resulting in a tractive retinal detachment. Neovascularization can occur on the iris in the anterior segment; neovascular membrane growth can in the anterior chamber angle occurring at the peripheral edge of the iris, and this growth leads to neovascular glaucoma. The loss of vision in proliferative retinopathy can be very difficult. Clinically significant macular edema can occur in non-proliferative or proliferative retinopathy, and are the leading cause of visual loss due to diabetic retinopathy. Symptoms and complaints Nonproliferative retinopathy vision symptoms are caused by macular edema or macular ischemia. However, patients can not have vision loss even with advanced retinopathy. The first sign of non-proliferative retinopathy capillary microaneurysms spot and stain-Retinahämorrhagie Hard exudates Cotton wool spots (soft exudates) Diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative) Image courtesy of Robert Machemer about online Journal of Ophthalmology (www.onjoph.com) , var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/diabetic_retinopathy_nonproliferative_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/diabetic_retinopathy_nonproliferative_high_de.jpg?la = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ Diabetic retinopathy (non-proliferative) ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v37894305 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eZu Funduscopic the characteristics of a proliferative diabetic retinopathy include microaneurysms and hard exudates (up

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