The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a serious, acute respiratory illness that is caused by the newly identified MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
Two coronaviruses, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, cause much more severe respiratory infections in humans than other coronaviruses. In 2012, the coronavirus MERS-CoV as the cause of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) has been identified. End of 2002, SARS-CoV was identified as the cause of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
Corona viruses are enveloped RNA viruses. Coronavirus infections in humans cause most common cold symptoms. Coronaviruses 229E and OC43 cause colds and the 2 serotypes NL63 and HUK1 have been also associated with this syndrome. Two coronaviruses, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, cause much more severe respiratory infections in humans than other coronaviruses. In 2012, the coronavirus MERS-CoV as the cause of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) has been identified. End of 2002, SARS-CoV was identified as the cause of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a serious, acute respiratory illness that is caused by the newly identified MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). A MERS-CoV infection was first reported in September 2012 in Saudi Arabia, but an outbreak in Jordan in April 2012 was retrospectively confirmed. Between April 2012 and September 2013 130 cases were confirmed in the laboratory; Most cases occurred in Saudi Arabia, where new cases continue to occur. Up to and including 2014, the eruption in the Middle East remained limited. Other cases have been confirmed in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. Cases have been confirmed in France, Germany, Italy, Tunisia and the UK in patients who were ill either get paid or care after returning from the Middle East. The transmission from person to person has been confirmed by the development of infections in people whose only risk close contact with patients who had MERS was. Most reported cases involved a serious respiratory illness that required hospitalization, but at least 21% of patients had mild or no symptoms. The reservoir of MERS-CoV is unknown; However, many coronavirus species are in bats and bats are the most likely source, although Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus has not been identified in bats. Anti-MERS-CoV antibodies have been some camels, which are the only other currently suspected hosts detected. The incubation period is 5 days. More than half of the cases was fatal. The median age of patients is 56 years, and the ratio between male and female patients is about 1.6: 1st The infection tends to be more severe in the elderly and in patients with pre-existing medical condition such as diabetes, chronic heart disease or chronic kidney disease. Fever, chills, myalgia and cough are common. Gastrointestinal symptoms (eg. As diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain) occur in about one third of patients. The cases may require a briefing in intensive care, but recently the proportion of such cases has declined sharply. All patients underwent breast imaging detects abnormalities that may be subtle or extensive, unilateral or bilateral. In some patients, the LDH and AST levels are elevated and / or the platelet and lymphocyte counts low. Some patients have acute kidney damage. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hemolysis may develop. Preliminary seroprevalence studies show that the infection in Saudi Arabia is not widespread. The WHO ranks the risk of MERS-CoV infection for pilgrims to Saudi Arabia for Umrah and Hajj to be very low; last year’s Hajj did not result in an increase in patients with MERS-CoV. For more information on pilgrimages to the Middle East, s. World – travel advice on MERS-CoV for pilgrimages. Diagnostic real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) -Testung the lower respiratory secretions MERS should in patients who have an unexplained acute infection of the lower respiratory tract and was either travel to or residence in a region in which MERS recently reported or in could have been a transfer Close contact with a patient who is suffering from suspected MERS, within 10 days before the onset of symptoms the latest recommendations are available from the wHO (Interim surveillance recommendations for human infection with novel coronavirus) and the United States by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Interim Guidelines for Investigation for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)). The testing should include real-time RT-PCR assays of the lower respiratory secretions, ideally taken at various points and carried out at different times. Serum should be patient and all contacts, even asymptomatic close contacts, including healthcare workers, removed (mild or asymptomatic to identify MERS). Serum is taken immediately after MERS is suspected or after contacts are exposed (acute serum), and 3 to 4 weeks later (rekonvaleszentes serum) .Therapie Supportive therapy is symptomatic. To prevent suspected cases spread, nurses standard, contact and air protection measures should undertake. There is no vaccine. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a serious, acute respiratory illness that is caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS is much heavier than other coronavirus infections. SARS is a flu-like illness, which occasionally leads to progressive severe respiratory insufficiency. SARS-CoV was first detected in November 2002 in the Chinese province of Guangdong and has spread over to> 30 countries. From mid-July 2003> 8000 cases had been reported with> 800 deaths worldwide (a mortality rate of about 10%). This outbreak has declined, and since 2004 no new cases have occurred. The immediate source of civet cats have been suspected, had been infected by contact with a bat before they were sold on a live meat market. Bats are common carriers hosts of coronaviruses. During the single SARS epidemic, the mortality rate was despite the rapid worldwide spread from person to person at just 10%. During the eight months ongoing outbreak> 8000 cases occurred worldwide. The diagnosis is clinical, and treatment is supportive. The eradication depends on strictly-observed isolation. SARS-CoV is next to the smallpox virus the only human virus that has been globally eradicated. It was especially so wiped out because “super spreaders” (patients who infect an unusually high number of contact persons) were quickly identified and isolated from the general population, making the transmission of the virus has been interrupted.