Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is an acute inflammatory response that is triggered by irritants or allergens from the skin. The primary symptom is pruritus. The skin lesions ranging from erythema to blistering and ulceration, often on or near the hands, but all exposed areas of skin can be affected. The diagnosis is made by history, the investigation findings as well as occasionally using the patch test. To treat the use of Antipruritics and topical corticosteroids, and avoiding the triggers are.

Contact dermatitis is an acute inflammatory response that is triggered by irritants or allergens from the skin. The primary symptom is pruritus. The skin lesions ranging from erythema to blistering and ulceration, often on or near the hands, but all exposed areas of skin can be affected. The diagnosis is made by history, the investigation findings as well as occasionally using the patch test. To treat the use of Antipruritics and topical corticosteroids, and avoiding the triggers are. Pathophysiology Kontakekzem caused by irritants or allergens. Irritant Contact Dermatitis Toxic contact dermatitis accounts for 80% of all cases of contact dermatitis. It is a non-specific inflammatory response to substances that have contact with the skin. The immune system is not activated. Among the numerous substances involved include chemicals (. For example, acids, alkalis, solvents, metal salts) soaps (. For example, abrasives, detergents) plants (e.g. poinsettias, peppers.) Body fluid (eg urine, saliva. ), the probability of the development of a toxic contact eczema depends on the properties of the irritant (z. B. extreme pH, solubility in the lipid film of the skin), environmental factors (for. example, low humidity, high temperature, high friction load) as well as patient factors (z. B. very young or very old) from. In people with atopic diseases the toxic contact dermatitis occurs more frequently in total. In this case, the toxic contact dermatitis can also trigger an immunological sensitization and thus lead to allergic contact dermatitis. The phototoxic dermatitis (Chemical photosensitivity) is a sub-form of the toxic contact eczema, in which topical (z. B. perfumes, coal tar), or occupied (eg. B. psoralen) upon absorption of UV rays form substances harmful free radicals and inflammatory mediators .Allergisches contact dermatitis allergic contact dermatitis is a cell-mediated type IV hypersensitivity reaction, which consists of 2 phases: sensitization to an antigen allergic reaction after a renewed contact with the antigen in the sensitization phase the allergens of Langerhans cells (dendritic epidermal cells) are added, hiking in the nearby lymph nodes, where they process the antigen and present it to T cells. This process can take place (in weak sensitizers such as sunscreens, perfumes and corticosteroids years) fast (6-10 days with strong sensitizers such as poison ivy) or slow. The sensitized T cells then migrate back into the epidermis. With renewed allergen exposure, they are activated cytokines Unlock, recruit inflammatory cells and cause the characteristic symptoms and complaints of allergic contact dermatitis. When the activated Autoekzematisierung of the allergen epidermal T-cells migrate locally or by means of circulation and trigger eczema at locations, which had no contact with the initial allergen. Through contact with the contents of bubbles or blisters, however, can trigger a reaction either at a different point in the patient itself or through other people. Allergic contact dermatitis can be caused by numerous allergens (see table: causes of allergic contact dermatitis). There is often a cross-sensitivity between these allergens (eg., Between benzocaine and paraphenylenediamine). Cross allergy (or cross-reaction) indicates that the exposure to a substance after exposure to another, related substance may cause an allergic reaction. Toxicodendron plants (eg. As poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac) are responsible for a large percentage of atopic eczema, including the moderate and severe cases. The allergen is urushiol acting. Causes of allergic contact dermatitis caused examples Aeroallergens ragweed pollen, insect repellent chemicals that are used in the manufacture of shoes or clothing particularly materials for the leather and rubber processing, tanning in shoes, vulcanization accelerators and antioxidants in the garment (ie. Gloves, shoes, underpants), formaldehyde in non-iron, textile refined clothes cosmetics depilatories, nail polish, Deodor ant dyes paraphenylenediamines (hair dyes and textile dyes), fragrances Various compositions In general, in all personal care products, soaps and perfumed Household Industrial substances Many compounds, including acrylic monomers, epoxy compounds, vat dyes, vulcanization accelerators and formaldehyde (in plastics and adhesives) ingredients of topical drugs antibiotics (eg. B. bacitracin, neomycin), antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine), anesthetics (e.g., benzocaine B.) antiseptics (eg. B. thiomersal, hexachlorophene) stabilizers (eg., Ethylene diamine and derivatives) Latex Latex gloves, condoms, catheters, balloons metal compounds chromate cobalt mercury nickel Many occupational exposures Personal items (such. as belt buckles, watches buckles, jewelry) plant poison ivy, -oak and -sumach, Ambrosia, primrose, cashew and mango peels the Under forms of allergic contact dermatitis include the photo allergic contact dermatitis and systemic allergic contact dermatitis caused. When photo-allergic contact dermatitis (Chemical Sensitivity) affects a substance only sensitizing after it has been structurally altered by exposure to UV rays. Typical causes are aftershave lotions, sunscreens and topical sulfonamides. The reactions may also spread to the non-sun-exposed skin. When systemically induced allergic contact dermatitis caused by ingestion of an allergen sensitization, after topical diffuse dermatitis (z. B. oral diphenhydramine after sensitization with topical diphenhydramine). Symptoms and complaints Irritant Contact Dermatitis Toxic contact dermatitis is more likely associated with pain than with an itch. The findings range from a mild erythema to hemorrhage, crusting, erosions, pustules, blisters and contact dermatitis Ödemen.Allergisches In allergic contact dermatitis, the strong itching is in the foreground; Pains usually occur only as a result of excoriation or infection. The skin lesions ranging from a temporary erythema of the occurrence of bubbles until the pronounced swelling with bubbles and / or ulcers. The changes often occur in a pattern and / or a distribution that is indicative of a specific exposure, such as a linear banding on an arm or a leg (z. B. on superficial contact with poison ivy) or a circular erythema (under the wristwatch or the waistband). Linear strips are almost always an indication of an external allergen or an external irritant. Each surface can be affected, mostly it by touching and the use of potential allergens, however, the hands. Upon exposure over the air (z. B. Perfume) are v. a. Areas that are not covered by clothing, affected. The eczema is typically limited to the location of the contact, but may later spread further by scratching and Autoekzematisierung. When systemically induced allergic contact dermatitis lesions may appear anywhere on the body. The eruption usually starts within 24-48 hours after exposure to the allergen. Tips and risks The shape or pattern of the lesion (linear strips are almost always an indication of an external allergen or irritant) may help to distinguish the contact dermatitis from other forms of dermatitis. Contact dermatitis (allergic) Figure provided by Thomas Habif, M.D. var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/contact_dermatitis_allergic_high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0&mw=350’ imageUrl: ‘/-/media/manual/professional/images/contact_dermatitis_allergic_high_de.jpg?la = en & thn = 0 ‘, title:’ contact dermatitis (allergic) ‘description:’ u003Ca id = “v37894668 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eBei allergic contact dermatitis rich the skin lesions of erythema on the occurrence of bubbles to severe swelling with blisters and / or ulcers. The changes frequently occur in a pattern or distribution

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