As a congenital goiter is called a diffuse or nodular thyroid enlargement at birth. The thyroid hormones can be reduced, increased or normal. To diagnose the thyroid size is determined by ultrasound. In hypothyroidism treated by substitution with thyroid hormones. A surgical procedure is indicated when breathing or swallowing are impaired.
As a congenital goiter is called a diffuse or nodular thyroid enlargement at birth. The thyroid hormones can be reduced, increased or normal. To diagnose the thyroid size is determined by ultrasound. In hypothyroidism treated by substitution with thyroid hormones. A surgical procedure is indicated when breathing or swallowing are impaired. A congenital etiology goiter can be caused by a pathological thyroid production, transplacental passage of maternal antibodies or transplacental passage of goiter generating factors. Some causes can be congenital. Decreased thyroid hormone production Genetic defects in thyroid hormone production result in decreased thyroid stimulating hormone levels (TSH), this may cause congenital goiter. Goiter is about 15% of cases of congenital hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism in infants and children: Congenital hypothyroidism) on. There are a number of gene abnormalities that cause a decreased thyroid hormone production; they often have an autosomal recessive form of inheritance and many are Einzelgendefekte. Decreased thyroid hormone production may result from a defect in each of the steps of the thyroid hormone biosynthesis, including failure at the concentration of iodide defects organification of iodine due to an abnormality in the thyroid peroxidase or hydrogen peroxide-generating system defects thyroglobulin synthesis or defective thyroglobulin transport Abnormal iodotyrosine -Deiodinase activity children with Pendred syndrome suffer from a mild hypothyroidism, thyroid function, goiter and hearing loss due to a genetic anomaly of a protein (pendrin), which is involved in iodide transport and also at the Cochlearfunktion. Although the Pendred syndrome is caused by a genetic defect, it often manifests itself in the Neugeborenenperiode.Transplazentare passage of maternal antibodies women with an autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland produce antibodies that can cross the placenta during the third trimester. Depending on the disorder, the antibodies either the TSH receptors can block and produce a hypothyroidism, or they stimulate and cause hyperthyroidism. Typically disappear when the affected children, the changes in the hormone secretion and the associated goiter spontaneously within 3-6 Monaten.Transplazentare passage of Struma factors causing goiter-causing factors such as amiodarone or antithyroid agents (eg. As propylthiouracil, Thiamazole) can pass through the placenta and sometimes hypothyroidism or rarely cause goiter. Symptoms and signs The most common finding is a solid, non-sensitive thyroid enlargement. Magnification is often vague, but can also be knotty. It can be noticed later at birth or. In some patients, the increase can not be seen directly, but the increasing growth can cause a deviation or compression of the trachea with a restriction of breathing and swallowing. Many children with goiter are euthyroid, but some may have hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism in infants and children) or hyperthyroidism (hyperthyroidism in infants and children) have. Diagnostic sonography On suspicion of this diagnosis is determined thyroid size by ultrasound. Thyroxine (T4) and TSH are measured. Treatment Surgical Treatment of symptomatic enlargement Sometimes thyroid hormone Hypothyroidism is treated with thyroid hormone. Goitre, which impedes breathing and swallowing will be operated on.