Congenital Abnormalities Of The Gastrointestinal Tract At A Glance

A very common form of the anomaly is the atresia, in which a piece of the intestine is not formed or developed. The most common form is the oesophageal atresia, followed by jejunoilealen atresia and duodenal atresia.

Most congenital disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lead to some kind of obstruction, which often manifested by feeding difficulty, distended stomach or vomiting at birth or within 1-2 days after. Some congenital gastrointestinal malformations such as malrotation have a very good prognosis, while others, such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, a poor prognosis have – with a relatively high mortality of 10-30%. A very common form of the anomaly is the atresia, in which a piece of the intestine is not formed or developed. The most common form is the oesophageal atresia, followed by jejunoilealen atresia and duodenal atresia. Decompression of the intestine by continuous nasogastric suction to prevent aspiration pneumonia and a further bloating of the abdomen, which could affect breathing, and laying in a center for neonatal surgery: For Immediate medical care following measures belong. Of vital importance to the maintenance of body temperature of the infant, the preventing hypoglycemia by administration of 10% glucose and electrolytes are i.v. and preventing or treating acidosis and infections, making it the infant for an operation in good condition. Since approximately one third of infants having a malformation of the GIT, other congenital malformations, attention should be paid mainly to abnormalities of the CNS, the heart and kidneys of these. This is congenital diaphragmatic hernia with and up to 70% of children with an omphalocele the case with up to 50% of children. Obstruction of the upper digestive tract Oesophageal, gastric, duodenal and jejunal sometimes obstructions should be taken into consideration when polyhydramnion present. These obstructions prevent the fetus can swallow amniotic fluid and absorb. A nasogastric tube should be directed into the stomach of the newborn as soon as the cardiovascular after birth is stable. If a large volume of liquid found in the stomach, especially in bilious color of the liquid, this supports the diagnosis of obstruction in the upper GIT. If the insertion of the nasogastric probe is not possible, this indicates an esophageal atresia or an obstruction of the nose (z. B. choanal). Distal small intestine and colon closure (meconium ileus and Mekoniumpfropfsyndrom.) An obstruction of the jejunum or ileum can be the result of jejunoilealen atresia, a Malrotation or meconium ileus. The obstruction of the colon can be attributed to the Mekoniumpfropfsyndrom or colon or anal atresia. In 75% of cases there is no history of maternal polyhydramnios because that is swallowed amniotic fluid in the intestine absorbed above the obstruction. These disorders show up, unlike the malrotation, intestinal duplication and Hirschsprung’s disease, typically in the first few days with problems with feeding, a distended stomach and biliary or fecal vomiting. The newborn has a small Mekoniumstuhl, but after a bowel movement more. The malrotation, intestinal duplication and Hirschsprung’s disease can manifest itself in the first few days or many years later. The general diagnostic and preoperative preparation consists in the absence of any oral feeding, laying a nasogastric probe, to prevent further swelling of the abdomen and an aspiration of vomit and the correcting fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Following a plain abdominal and then a contrast study is done to determine the anatomic location – also the contrast enema may be able to resolve a Mekoniumpfropfen or meconium ileus. When Hirschsprung’s disease, a rectal biopsy is necessary. Abdominal wall defects Severe congenital disorders can affect the abdominal wall (omphalocele and gastroschisis) and cause a protrusion of the intestines.

Health Life Media Team

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