Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer (colorectal cancer, CRC) are extremely common. Symptoms include blood in the stool and changes in bowel habits. The investigation of the stool for occult blood is used for early detection. Diagnosis is colonoscopy. Treatment consists of surgical resection and chemotherapy for lymph node involvement

Colorectal cancer in the US annually responsible for approximately 137,000 cases and 50,000 cancer deaths. In Western countries, the colon and rectum account for more cases of cancer than any other anatomical regions, except the lungs. The incidence increases with 40 years and has its peak age at 60-75 years. A total of 70% of the cases occur in the rectum and sigmoid colon, and 95% are adenocarcinomas. Colon cancer occurs more often in women, rectal cancer are more frequent in men. Synchronous cancers (ie more than one) occur in 5% of patients (translator’s note .: In Germany in 2003, 28,589 cases of the disease were registered;.. The mortality rate for men is about 18%, in women at about 11 %).

Colorectal cancer (colorectal cancer, CRC) are extremely common. Symptoms include blood in the stool and changes in bowel habits. The investigation of the stool for occult blood is used for early detection. Diagnosis is colonoscopy. Treatment consists of surgical resection and chemotherapy for lymph node involvement Colorectal cancer in the US every year about 137,000 cases and 50,000 cancer deaths responsible. In Western countries, the colon and rectum account for more cases of cancer than any other anatomical regions, except the lungs. The incidence increases with 40 years and has its peak age at 60-75 years. A total of 70% of the cases occur in the rectum and sigmoid colon, and 95% are adenocarcinomas. Colon cancer occurs more often in women, rectal cancer are more frequent in men. Synchronous cancers (ie more than one) occur in 5% of patients (translator’s note .: In Germany in 2003, 28,589 cases of the disease were registered;.. The mortality rate for men is about 18%, in women at about 11 %). Etiology Colorectal cancer usually occur as a transformation within adenomatous polyps. Serrated adenomas are particularly aggressive in their malignant transformation. About 80% of cases are sporadic, 20% have a hereditary component. Predisposing factors are chronic ulcerative colitis (ulcerative colitis), and granulomatous colitis; the risk of cancer increases with the duration of the disease. Patients in populations with a high incidence of colorectal carcinoma feed low in fiber and rich in animal protein, fat and refined carbohydrates. Carcinogens can be taken with food, but they occur more likely by bacterial processing of food components or biliary or intestinal secretions. The exact mechanism is unclear. The spread of colorectal cancer is done by direct, penetrating the gut wall growth, hematogenous metastasis, regional lymph node metastasis, perineural spread and intraluminal metastases. Symptoms and complaints colorectal adenocarcinomas grow slowly, it passes a long interval until they are large enough to cause symptoms. The symptoms depend on the location of the lesion, the type, extent and complications. The ascending colon has a large lumen, a thin wall and a liquid content, therefore, the obstruction is a late event. Bleeding is usually occult. Fatigue and weakness by severe anemia may be the only symptoms. Sometimes the tumors grow until they are large enough to be felt through the abdominal wall before other symptoms appear. The descending colon has a smaller lumen, the feces are semi-solid and the carcinoma tends to encircle the intestine circular and so alternately causing constipation and increased stool frequency or diarrhea. A partial obstruction with colicky abdominal pain or a complete bowel obstruction may be the first symptoms. The chair is tinged with blood or mixed. Some patients present with symptoms of – often covered – perforation before (focal pain and tenderness) or rarely with diffuse peritonitis. For rectal cancer, the most common first symptom is bleeding during bowel movements. Whenever a rectal haemorrhage occurs, also vorliegendes carcinoma must be excluded, even if obvious hemorrhoids or diverticulosis are present. Tenesmus or a feeling of incomplete emptying may be present. In perirectal expansion pain is common. In some patients, initial symptoms are caused metastasis (z. B. hepatomegaly, ascites, supraclavicular adenopathy). Diagnostic colonoscopy (See also the US Preventive Services Task Force’s summary of recommendations Regarding screening for colorectal cancer and the American College of Gastroenterology’s guideline Colorectal Cancer Screening for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance.) Screening tests test for occult blood in the stool Flexible sigmoidoscopy colonoscopy If necessary, , CT colonography Early diagnosis depends on routine examinations, v. a. Examination of the stool for occult blood decreases. Several options are available, including the traditional guaiac-based tests and newer immunochemical tests are more sensitive and specific. Cancers that are detected so tend to be better cured at an earlier stage and. a Haemocculttest® test of the chair from the age of 50 every year and flexible sigmoidoscopy should be performed every 5 years for patients with an average risk. Some experts recommend a colonoscopy every 10 years instead of a sigmoidoscopy. A colonoscopy every 3 years carried out seems to be even better. The screening in high risk patients (z. B. ulcerative colitis) are treated under the respective diseases. A CT Kolongraphie (virtual colonoscopy) generates 3-D and 2-D images of the colon using a multi-detector row CT, and a combination of oral contrast media and gas expansion in the colon. By displaying high-resolution 3-D images of the appearance of the optical endoscopy is a little simulated, hence the name. It seems promising as a screening test for people who are unable or unwilling to undergo an endoscopic colonoscopy, but it is less sensitive and highly operator-dependent. It avoids the need for sedation, but still requires a thorough preparation of the intestine, and the gas expansion can be perceived as uncomfortable. In addition, lesions, unlike the optical colonoscopy can not be biopsied during the diagnostic procedure. The video capsule endoscopy of the colon has many technical problems and as a screening test not akzeptabel.Diagnostische tests colonoscopic biopsy CT Colorectal to determine the extent of the tumor and tumor dissemination carcinomas (CT scan) ASTROLAB / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY var model = {thumbnailUrl: ‘/ – / ? media / manual / professional / images / c0239035-colorectal-cancer-ct-scan science-photo-library-high_de.jpg lang = en & thn = 0 & mw = 350 ‘, imageUrl:’ / – / media / manual / professional / images /c0239035-colorectal-cancer-ct-scan-science-photo-library-high_de.jpg?la=de&thn=0 ‘, title:’ Colorectal cancer (CT scan) ‘, description: ‘ u003Ca id = “v37892588 ” class = “”anchor “” u003e u003c / a u003e u003cdiv class = “”para “” u003e u003cp u003eDieses image shows an endoscopic view of adenocarcinoma of the . colon u003c / p u003e u003c / div u003e ‘credits’ ASTROLAB / SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY’

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