Development is often divided into different areas such as gross motor skills, fine motor skills, language, perception, and social / emotional growth. These designations are useful, but there are substantial overlaps. On the basis of studies average age were to which specific milestones have to be reached, established and defined normal ranges. In a normal child’s progress between different areas may vary such. As in an infant that is running late, but early records speaking (see Table: Development Milestones *). Development milestones * Age behavior birth asleep most of the time Absorbs Free the airways react with wines to complaints and annoyances four weeks moving hands to mouth and eyes moving his head from side to side while lying on his stomach, the eyes follow an object in itself an arc of about 15 cm from the face to the middle of the body moves. Responds in any way to a noise (z. B. amazement, crying, silence) rotates in the direction familiar sounds and voices Focused Begins in direct line of sight to smile on a face 6 weeks Considering objects, if it is addressed lies flat on the belly head remains when placed in a sitting position three months Holds head while sitting upright Raise the head by 45 ° while lying on his stomach Opens and closes the hands presses his feet down when the feet are placed on a flat surface reaches for overhanging him toys tracked an object that moves in an arc across the face from one side to another. Fixed faces just smiles when the voice of the nursing person hears sounds from there to 5-6 months Holds head straight upright Sits with support rolls are usually from the abdomen to the back Reaches for objects Detects people from afar is listening attentively spontaneously to the sound of human voices Smiles Squeaks joy babbles playing 7 months Sits without support Shifts weight on legs when held upright Defines objects from one hand to the other hand. Holding their own bottle Looks like a fallen object Responds to own name Responds to a “no” combined vowels and consonants to babbling moving the body with excitement in anticipation of playing Plays “cuckoo” nine months Sits safely crawls or creeps on hands and knees pulling himself up to stand high, Aiming a toy that is out of reach to get; shows dissatisfaction if him a toy Come is removed If the prone position to a sitting position when it clings to something or someone says indiscriminately “Mama” or “Papa” 12 months goes by it entlanghangelt of furniture or hands is held Can a step or two go free Stands for a brief moment says “Papa” and “Mama” to the right person drink from a cup Clap your hands and waves goodbye Speaks several words 18 months Goes well Can stair climb with adherence Records a vertical line builds a tower of four cubes Scrolls several pages at once to Speaks about 10 words drawn toys the rope behind him to Feed it partially self-2-2 ½ years going well and coordinates climbing on furniture Jumps Climb the stairs up and down without assistance Can well with a spoon handle Scrolls pages individually to Build a tower of 7 cubes Opens Doors Krizzelt in a circular pattern, simple clothes pulls itself in power sets of two or three words. Verbalized toilet three years Mature transition Bevorzugungt attract Shuts tricycle one hand over the other Draw a circle by May well itself, except for buttons and laces Counts to 10 and uses the plural Detects least 3 colors Provides constantly Questions Can good itself eat Goes itself on the toilet (half of the children) 4-year Changes from the feet when it comes up the stairs and down. Throws a ball up Jumping up one leg Draws a cross to Pulls himself at Washes hands and face five years Jumps Rope Catches a bouncing ball Draws a triangle pointing Draws a person of 6 parts know 4 colors drawn on independently and from 6 years is a straight line along the heel to the tip write his name * the order is fairly constant, but vary the times of milestones; the numbers above show averages. Environmental influences, from the food to the stimulation and the influence of diseases to psychological factors that determine, together with genetic factors, the rate and pattern of development. The assessment of the development is done constantly by parents, school staff and doctors. There are many tests to monitor the development in more detail. The Denver development test facilitates evaluation in various fields. The result arches give the average age on, should be reached by specific milestones and show beautifully the important concept of standard value ranges. Other tests can be used (see Table: Development Milestones *). Motor development Motor development includes fine motor (eg. As grasping small objects, drawing) and gross motor (z. B. walking, climbing stairs) capabilities. It is a continuous process, the family of specifications, environmental factors (eg. B. limitation of activity by prolonged illness) and specific disorders (eg. As cerebral palsy, mental retardation, muscular dystrophy) depends. Children can typically run at 12 months, with 18 months to rise while holding stairs and run with two years – but the age at which the milestones of normal children are achieved varied considerably. The motor development can not be significantly accelerated by increased stimulation. Language development The ability to understand speech is the ability to speak ahead; Children who speak only a few words, can usually understand a lot. Although delays are typically not associated in the linguistic power of expression with other developmental delays, children should be examined with a distinct language delay for the presence of other developmental delays. For children who have both receptive and expressive language delay, other development problems are more frequent. The investigation should begin with an examination of hearing. Most children with language delay have a normal intelligence. In contrast, children with an accelerated language development an above-average intelligence. The language evolved from the making of vowel sounds (cooing) for insertion of syllables that begin with a consonant (ba-ba-ba). Most children can say several words with 12 months “Papa” and “Mama” and at 18 months, 2 years, then they can make two or three-word phrases. The average three-year-old can have a conversation. A four year old child can tell simple stories and participate in conversation with adults or other children. A 5 year old child dominates a Wortschafz of a few thousand words. Even before the age of 18 months, children can understand a story that is read to them. At the age of five years, children are able to recite the alphabet and recognize simple words printed. These skills are essential to learn to read simple words, phrases and sentences. Depending on whether books are available in their household and how their personal skills, most children start with six or seven years with reading. However, this immersion winding steps vary considerably. Cognitive development Cognitive development refers to the spiritual maturation of children. It is increasingly recognized that adequate affection and care in infancy and early childhood are critical for cognitive development and emotional health. So it is about very large impact on the development in these areas if the child is already read to from an early age, if it makes intellectually stimulating experience and it lives in a warm and pampering environment. The intellect is to solve in young children by observing their language skills, their curiosity and their ability problems assessed. Once children have put it better, the intellectual skills can better assess, since then specialized clinical tests are available. Once the children go to school, automatic continuous monitoring as part of their education. At the age of 2 years, most children have a rudimentary concept of time, many two- or three-year-old believe that everything that has happened in the past, was “yesterday” and everything that will happen in the future, “tomorrow” takes place , A child at this age has a vivid imagination, but has difficulty in distinguishing between fantasy and reality. At the age of four, most children have a sophisticated understanding of time. They realize that the day is divided into morning, afternoon and night. You can even recognize the changing seasons. At the age of 7 years, the intellectual abilities of children are complex. At this age, they are increasingly able to focus at the same moment on more than just one aspect of an event or situation. For example, children can identify school-age that much narrower container can hold the same amount of water into itself like a short wide container. You can understand that medicine tastes bad, but they feel better afterwards, or that her mother may be angry at her, but she still loves. Children are increasingly able to put themselves in another person. So that they acquire the foundations for the alternation of roles in games or entertainments. In addition, children can meet previously agreed school-age rules. Children at this age also begin to use their powers of observation and their personal ability to understand different perspectives and to form their own opinions. Feel and behavior of the child psychological and social development arising from its level of development and from his temperament. Each child has an individual temperament or its specific mood. Some children may be cheerful and adaptable, easily develop regular procedures of sleeping, waking, eating and other daily activities. These children also react generally positively to new situations. Other children are not very adaptable and can hardly discernible regularity in daily operations to. These children tend to be more likely to respond negatively to new situations. Still other children are exactly in between. Emotional growth and the acquisition of social skills can be checked by the child’s interaction is observed with other in everyday situations. Once children can talk, there will be a much more accurate picture of their emotional state. The emotional development can be described much more precisely using special test procedure then, similar to the intellect. Crying is the most important means of communication for infants. Babies cry because they are hungry because they do not feel well, or for many other reasons that may not be obvious. Infants cry usually at the age of six weeks, three hours a day, which from about three months reduced to one hour a day. Parents provide their crying babies usually food to, change their diapers or search for a cause of pain or uneasiness. If these measures do not work, sometimes it helps to take the child to the arm or go around with him. Sometimes nothing works it. Parents should be advised not to instill their crying babies by force food. Babies always gladly accept food when hunger is the reason of her weeping. Around the age of 8 months i usually begin infants to be fearful when they are separated from their parents. Goodbyes before going to bed and in places like day care centers can be difficult and sometimes have temper tantrums result. This behavior may last for many months. Many older children in these situations a particular blanket or stuffed animal can help to facilitate the departure by this object becomes the temporary replacement for the absent parent. At the age of 2-3 years, children begin to test their limits and to do exactly what was forbidden, just to see what happens. The frequent “no’s”, then get the children from their parents to hear, reflect their struggle for independence at this age. Although it can be stressful for parents and children, tantrums are normal. You can also help to express their frustration in a phase in which they do not yet have sufficient skills to express their feelings verbally children. Parents can help to keep the number of tantrums low by avoiding a strong fatigue or frustration of their children from the outset by know the behavior patterns of their children and avoid situations that can lead to tantrums. Some young children have particular difficulties to control their impulses and need parents who set the very clear rules within which they can get a sense of security in their little world. At the age of 18 months to 2 years children start usually to develop ideas about the different gender identities. In the preschool years, they are also beginning to recognize the different sexes assigned roles and understand what is expected of boys and girls. An exploration of the genitals at this age is a sign that children begin to establish a connection between the gender and their own bodies. Between the ages of 2 to 3 years playing increases with other children. Although children at this age can be possessive still, when it comes to certain items, they begin to share the first time and once alternate in the game. Tenure, which is expressed by the child says it, for example: “This is mine,” serve to develop a sense of one’s own ego. Although children at this age strive for independence, they still need a safe and useful close to their parents. For example, it may be that they move away in a moment of pure joy of discovery by their parents, just to hide the next moment of fear behind them. At the age of three to five years, many children get interested in fantasy games and sometimes have imaginary friends. Fantasy games allow children to experience different roles and strong emotions in a safe environment and in an appropriate form. Fantasy games help children and more social competence. They learn conflicts with parents or other children to solve in a way that helps to express frustrations and to retain their self-respect. Also at this time often typical childhood fears arise as the fear of “witch under the bed.” These fears are normal. Aged 7 to 12 years old children have to deal with numerous issues: the concept of the self, the basis of which is created by their own social skills in the classroom. Another issue is the relationship with other children in the same age where it’s all about acceptance and insertion in a group. Another issue is the relationship to one’s own family, which is partly influenced by the fact receive what encouragement the children from their parents and their siblings. Although many children the peer group grant a high value, they are directed to continue giving priority to their parents and looking at them with support and guidance. Siblings can act as role models and invaluable ally, but also as a critical authority when it comes to what you can do and what not. This phase is often very lively, if the children engage in various activities and are eager to try as much new. At this age, children are very eager to learn. Take advice on their safety, health and lifestyle usually good and take warnings seriously from danger.