Hepatitis can be acute or chronic (usually defined with a duration of> 6 months). Most cases of acute viral hepatitis heal spontaneously, but some make a history of chronic hepatitis.
Under a hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver which is characterized by diffuse or patchy necrosis distributed. Hepatitis can be acute or chronic (usually defined with a duration of> 6 months). Most cases of acute viral hepatitis heal spontaneously, but some make a history of chronic hepatitis. Common Causes Common causes of hepatitis are specific hepatitis viruses alcohol drugs (eg, isoniazid.) Known least five different hepatitis viruses (see Table: Characteristics of hepatitis viruses). Other, as yet unidentified viruses probably also cause acute viral hepatitis. Less common causes Among the less common causes of hepatitis include other viruses (eg. As infectious mononucleosis, yellow fever, cytomegalovirus) and leptospirosis. Parasitic infections (eg. As schistosomiasis, malaria, amebiasis), pyogenic infections and abscesses that affect the liver are not considered as hepatitis. Liver involvement in tuberculosis and other granulomatous infiltrations are sometimes called granulomatous hepatitis, but the clinical, biochemical and histological picture is different from that in the diffuse hepatitis. Various systemic infections and other diseases can cause the liver small local inflammation or necrosis. These non-specific reactive hepatitis cause little disturbance of liver function, but remain mostly asymptomatic. Some forms of non-infectious liver inflammation and hepatic infections are summarized in Selected diseases or pathogens with liver inflammation. Selected diseases or pathogens with inflammation of the liver disease or pathogen manifestations viruses cytomegalovirus In newborns: hepatomegaly, jaundice, congenital defects in adults: mononucleosis-like illness with hepatitis; Post transfusion may occur Epstein-Barr Clinical Infectious mononucleosis hepatitis with jaundice at 5-10%; subclinical involvement of the liver in 90-95% of cases Acute Hepatitis Other liver infection simplex sometimes severe in young adults IGelbfieberI jaundice, systemic toxicity, bleeding necrosis with little inflammatory reaction occasionally due to infection with echovirus or coxsackie virus, varicella, herpes, rubella or measles bacteria IAktinomykoseI granulomatous reaction of the liver with progressive necrotizing abscesses Purulent abscess Severe infection acquired through portals pyaemia, cholangitis or by hematogenous spread or direct; caused due to various, especially gram-negative and anaerobic pathogens disease and toxicity, but only mild liver dysfunction tuberculosis liver involvement (often, usually subclinical) with granulomatous infiltration; Jaundice (rare) disproportionately elevated alkaline phosphatase Other hepatitis of lesser severity in many systemic infections (often, usually subclinical) Fungi histoplasmosis granulomas in liver and spleen (usually subclinical) that heal by calcification Other Granulomatous infiltration, sometimes with cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis or other infections occurs Protozoa amebiasis * Important disease, often with no apparent dysentery Usually a single large abscess with liquefaction Systemic diseases, painful pressure hepatomegaly, remarkably low hepatic impairment malaria A common cause of hepatosplenomegaly in endemic areas jaundice missing or lightly unless there is an active hemolysis Transplacental prior toxoplasmosis infection In neonates: jaundice, CNS and other systemic manifestations Vis zerale leishmaniasis infiltration of the reticuloendothelial system by parasites, hepatosplenomegaly helminths ascariasis bile duct obstruction One or more cysts that have a calcified rim generally and large size can be by adult worms, parenchymal granulomas caused by larvae Clonorchiasis infection of the biliary tract, cholangitis, stones, cholangiocarcinoma Echinokokkose but are often asymptomatic and liver function can not interfere in the Abdominal cavity, or biliary tract rupture fascioliasis Acute: pressure-sensitive pain hepatomegaly, fever, eosinophilia Chronic: biliary fibrosis, cholangitis Schistosomiasis Periportal granulomatous reaction to eggs with progressive hepatosplenomegaly, so-called Pipestem fibrosis, portal hypertension and varices Hepatocellular function is maintained; fake cirrhosis toxocariasis Larva migrans visceral hepatomegaly with granulomas, eosinophilia spirochetes leptospirosis acute fever, fatigue, jaundice, bleeding, kidney damage liver necrosis (often mild despite severe jaundice) Syphilis Congenital: Neonatal hepatosplenomegaly, fibrosis Acquired: Variable hepatitis in the secondary stage, gummas with irregular scars tertiary stage relapsing fever Borrelia infection Systemic symptoms, hepatomegaly, sometimes jaundice Unknown Idiopathic granulomatous hepatitis Active, chronic granulomatous inflammation of unknown cause (sarcoidosis variant?) Can especially systemic symptoms (eg. cause as fever, malaise) and can occur when certain drugs are used sarcoidosis granulomatous infiltration (often, usually subclinical), jaundice (rare) Occasionally, progressive inflammation with scarring and portal hypertension ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease spectrum of liver diseases, especially ulcerative colitis; includes periportal inflammation (pericholangitis), sclerosing cholangitis, cholangiocarcinoma and autoimmune hepatitis poor correlation between hepatic function and activity of the bowel disease * to distinguish from amebiasis by serological tests for amoebae and direct percutaneous abscess aspiration.