Wheezing And Asthma In Infants And Young Children

September 3, 2018

Wheezing is a relatively high-pitched whistling sound, which is generated by the movement of air through constricted or compressed small airways. It comes in the first years of life are common and is usually caused by a viral respiratory infection or asthma, but other possible causes include inhaled irritants or allergens, reflux, and heart failure. Recurrent episodes of wheezing are common in the early years; 1 of 3 children has…

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Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome

The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a combined B and T cell defect underlying is expressed in recurrent infections, eczema and thrombocytopenia. (See also Overview of immune deficiency disorders, and approach to the patient with an immunodeficiency disorder.) The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a combined B and T cell defect underlying is expressed in recurrent infections, eczema and thrombocytopenia. (See also Overview of immune deficiency disorders, and approach to the patient with an…

September 3, 2018
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X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Inherited

(Duncan’s syndrome) The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is a result of a defect in the T-cells and natural killer cells and is characterized by an abnormal sensitivity to Epstein-Barr virus infections. This can lead to liver failure, immunodeficiency, lymphoma, fatal lymphoproliferative diseases or bone marrow aplasia. (See also Overview of immune deficiency disorders, and approach to the patient with an immunodeficiency disorder.) The X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome is a result of a…

September 3, 2018
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X-Ray And Other Imaging Contrast Examinations

The main contraindication in X-ray contrast media studies is a suspicion of a perforation because free barium causes severe irritation to the mediastinum or peritoneum; water-soluble contrast agents are less irritating and can be used in cases of possible perforation. In elderly patients, storage and rotation for optimum positioning of barium and intraluminal air often causes difficulties. X-ray and other imaging contrast examinations are the entire GIT from the pharynx…

September 3, 2018
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X-Ray Contrast Media And Contrast Media Reactions

Iodinated contrast agents may be Radiopaque contrast agents are often used in radiography and fluoroscopy, to distinguish boundaries between tissues of similar X-ray density. Most contrast agents containing iodine. Iodinated contrast agents may be Ionic Nonionic Ionic contrast media, the salts are hyperosmolar as compared to blood. Ionic contrast agent should be used either for myelographic investigations, nor for injections in which it into the spinal canal (neurotoxic risk side…

September 3, 2018
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Zika Virus (Zv) Infections

The Zika virus is a flavivirus that is similar to viruses, dengue fever, yellow fever and West Nile fever. cause. A Zika virus infection is usually asymptomatic, but can cause fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis; a Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause (a serious birth defects) and eye abnormalities microcephaly. The diagnosis is by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or a reverse transcriptase-PCR. posed. The treatment is symptomatic. Prevention includes…

September 3, 2018
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Vitamin E

(Tocopherol) A nutritional vitamin E deficiency is common in developing countries; a deficiency in adults rarely occurs in developed countries, which usually attributed to a fat malabsorption. The main symptoms are hemolytic anemia and neurological disorders. The diagnosis is based on the ratio of plasma alpha-tocopherol to total plasma lipids; a lower quotient value suggests a vitamin E deficiency. For therapy, high-dose vitamin E is administered orally when neurologic deficits…

September 3, 2018
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Vitamin K

Vitamin K deficiency is caused by a totally inadequate supply, a fat malabsorption, or the use of Kumarinantikoagulanzien. It is particularly common in breastfed infants, and impaired blood clotting. A suspicion results from findings routinely performed coagulation tests and is confirmed when vitamin K is effect. Therapeutically Vitamin K is given orally or parenterally when a fat malabsorption, or if the risk of bleeding is the cause high. Vitamin K1…

September 3, 2018
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Vocal Cord Dysfunction

(Paradoxical vocal chord movement disorder) A vocal cord dysfunction is more common in women aged 20-40. The etiology is unclear, but it seems to be related to anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and personality disorders in context. It is not as a factitious disorder (i. E. Patients do not do it consciously) is considered. A paradoxical or dysfunctional vocal chord movement is defined as an adduction of the vocal cords…

September 3, 2018
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Vocal Cord Paralysis

A vocal cord paralysis can have many causes and may affect speaking, breathing and swallowing. The left vocal cord is affected twice as often as the right, and women are affected (in a ratio of 3: 2) more often than men. The diagnosis is based on the findings of laryngoscopy. To determine the cause an extensive investigation may be necessary. If the cause can not cure, there are several surgical…

September 3, 2018
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