Trisomy 13

(Trisomy D Patau Syndrome) Trisomy 13 is caused by an extra chromosome 13 and is composed of an abnormality in the frontal lobe, the midface, eye development, a mental retardation, heart defects and a small birth size. Trisomy 13 occurs in about 1 in 10,000 live births, about 80% of cases there is a complete trisomy 13. An increasing maternal age increases the risk. The extra chromosome is usually maternal…

September 3, 2018
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Tinea Pedis

(Athlete’s foot) Tinea pedis is a dermatophyte infection of the foot. Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophytosis, because the moisture from perspiration of the feet promotes fungal growth. Tinea pedis may occur as one of 4 clinical forms or as a combination: Tinea pedis is a dermatophyte infection of the foot. Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophytosis, because the moisture from perspiration of the feet promotes fungal growth….

September 3, 2018
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Squamous

The squamous carcinoma is a malignant tumor of epidermal keratinocytes, which involves the dermis and usually occurs in sun-exposed areas. The local destruction can be considerable and in advanced stages leads to metastasis. The diagnosis is made by biopsy. Treatment depends on the tumor characteristics and includes the curettage and Elektrodissektion, surgical excision, cryosurgery and sometimes radiotherapy. Squamous is the second most common type of skin cancer after basal cell…

September 3, 2018
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Staphylococcal Infections

Staphylococci are gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus is the species with the highest virulence; it typically causes skin infections and sometimes pneumonia, endocarditis and osteomyelitis. Often it leads to abscess formation. Some strains liberate toxins which can cause gastroenteritis, a scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome. The diagnosis is made by Gram stain and culture. The therapy is usually done by penicillinasefesten ?-lactams, but also vancomycin or other newer antibiotics…

September 3, 2018
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Understanding Spider Bites

Almost all of the 40,000 species of spiders are poisonous. However, the biting tools of most species are too short to penetrate the human skin. Serious systemic reactions occur most frequently after bite of the following ways: Brown recluse spiders, brown recluse spider True Widows (Latrodectus): Black Widow (Latrodectus sp), Brown Widow (Latrodectus geometricus]) Brown recluse spiders are found primarily in the Midwest and in the southern states of the…

September 3, 2018
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Spinal Cord Compression

Various lesions can compress the spinal cord, causing segmental sensitive, motor, reflex deficits and Sphinkterstörungen. The diagnosis is made by an MRI. The treatment is to relieve the compression. (See also overview of diseases of the spinal cord and Immediate supply in spinal trauma.) Various lesions can compress the spinal cord, causing segmental sensitive, motor, reflex deficits and Sphinkterstörungen. The diagnosis is made by an MRI. The treatment is to…

September 3, 2018
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Snakebites

Of the 3000 occurring world beating species, only about 15% of the world’s and 20% of occurring in the United States snakes for humans are toxic because they secrete either a poison or toxic saliva (see Table: Major poisonous snakes on the region). In all US states except Alaska, Maine and Hawaii at least one Giftschlangenart is located. The vast majority of North American venomous snakes belonging to the group…

September 3, 2018
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Renal Atheroembolie

Atheroembolie denotes the closure of renal arterioles by atherosclerotic emboli, leading to a progressive kidney damage. The emboli originating from ruptured atheromatous plaques. The symptoms are similar to those of kidney failure. There may be symptoms and findings of an extensive arterioembolischen disease. The diagnosis is made by renal biopsy. The long-term prognosis is poor in general. The treatment aims to prevent further embolism. Atheromatous plaque rupture resulting usually from…

September 3, 2018
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Peptic Ulcer Disease

Under a peptic ulcer is meant an erosion in a segment of the gastrointestinal mucosa, typically in the stomach (gastric ulcers) or a few centimeters in the duodenum (duodenal ulcers), which penetrates into the muscularis mucosae. Almost all ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection or NSAIDs. The symptoms typically consist of burning epigastric pain subside often after food intake. The diagnosis is made by endoscopy or detection of H….

September 3, 2018
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Ösophagusmembran

(Plummer-Vinson syndrome, Paterson-Kelly syndrome; Sideropenic dysphagia) Under a Ösophagusmembran refers to a growing into the lumen thin mucous membrane, which causes a dysphagia. Under a Ösophagusmembran refers to a growing into the lumen thin mucous membrane, which causes a dysphagia. (S. a. Overview Esophageal dysphagia.) Under an Ösophagusmembran refers to a growing into the lumen thin mucous membrane, which causes a dysphagia. Ösophagusmembran figure provided by David M. Martin, M.D….

September 3, 2018
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