Vocal Cord Polyps, Nodules And Granulomas

In an acute trauma or chronic irritation of the vocal folds can change so that eventually develop polyps, nodules or granulomas. All lead to hoarseness and a breathy (breathy) vote. If symptoms persist longer than 3 weeks, you should definitely take the vocal folds inspected. The diagnosis is based on laryngoscopic examination findings and biopsy in selected cases to rule out cancer. After careful surgical removal of the lesions, the…

September 3, 2018
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Vcfs

Most vertebral compression fractures are a consequence of osteoporosis, are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic and occur with no or minimal trauma. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (osteoporosis) are common in the thoracic spine (usually below T6) and of the lumbar spine, particularly in the vicinity of the T12-L1 junction. There seems to be no preliminarily trauma or only minimal trauma (eg. As a minor fall, sudden bending, lifting, coughing). Patients who…

September 3, 2018
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Vesicoureteraler Reflux And Reflux Nephropathy

The reflux nephropathy is induced into the renal parenchyma presumably by vesicoureteral reflux of infected urine Nierenvernarbung. The diagnosis is suspected in children with UTI or reflux nephropathy family history or when a prenatal ultrasound showing hydronephrosis. The diagnosis is made by a voiding cystourethrogram or Radionuklidzystographie. Children with moderate or severe reflux are treated with prophylactic antibiotics or surgical correction. A reflux nephropathy is a form of chronic tubulointerstitial…

September 3, 2018
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Viral Conjunctivitis

Viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious acute conjunctival infection that is usually caused by adenoviruses. Symptoms include irritation, photophobia, and watery discharge. The diagnosis is made clinically, sometimes viral cultures or immunodiagnostic tests are indicated. The infection is self-limiting, but in severe cases, local corticosteroids are sometimes necessary. Viral conjunctivitis is a highly contagious acute conjunctival infection that is usually caused by adenoviruses. Symptoms include irritation, photophobia, and watery discharge….

September 3, 2018
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Vitamin A

(Retinol) A vitamin A deficiency caused by inadequate supply, malabsorption of fat or liver damage. It weakens the immune system and hematopoiesis and causes skin redness and typical eye damage (eg. As xerophthalmia, night blindness). The diagnosis arises with characteristic ocular findings and low vitamin A levels. Therapeutic Vitamin A is administered orally or parenterally administered when severe symptoms are present or malabsorption is the lack of cause. Vitamin A…

September 3, 2018
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Tricuspid Atresia

The tricuspid atresia is the absence of the tricuspid valve, connected to a hypoplastic right ventricle. There are many accompanying malformations such as atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary valve stenosis and transposition of the great vessels. Symptoms include cyanosis and heart failure. The second heart sound (S2) is single and the cardiac murmurs depend on the accompanying malformations. The diagnosis is made by echocardiography. A cardiac catheterization may…

September 3, 2018
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Tuberous Sclerosis (Ts)

Tuberous sclerosis is a dominantly inherited genetic disease in which tumors (z. B. hamartomas) develop in several organs. Diagnosis requires mapping of the affected organ. Treatment is symptomatic or if CNS tumors grow, everolimus. Patients must be monitored regularly to look for complications. Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a neurocutaneous syndrome that occurs in 1 in 6,000 children; 85% of cases involve mutations in TSC1 gene (9q34), which controls the production…

September 3, 2018
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Tularemia

(Rabbit fever, “deer fly fever”) Tularemia is a febrile illness which is caused by Francisella tularensis; it can cause a typhoid-like symptoms. Symptoms are a primary local ulcerative lesion, regional lymphadenopathy, severe systemic symptoms, and occasionally an atypical pneumonia. The diagnosis is made primarily epidemiologically and clinically and supported by serological tests. Treatment is with streptomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or doxycycline. There are 7 clinical syndromes, tularemia are assigned (see…

September 3, 2018
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Transposition Of The Great Vessels

The transposition of the great vessels occurs when the aorta emerges directly from the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the left ventricle, which causes an independent, parallel pulmonary and systemic circulation. Oxygenated blood can not enter the body except through the openings that connect the right to the left side (z. B. patent foramen ovale, ventricular septal defect [VSD]). The symptoms are severe primarily Neugeborenenzyanose and occasionally heart…

September 3, 2018
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Traumatic Eardrum

Traumatic eardrum may be accompanied by pain, bleeding, hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is made otoscope. Often, no treatment is necessary. Infections can make antibiotics required. If perforations are made more than 2 months, the ossicular chain is interrupted or coexist inner ear injury, they must be surgically. Among the causes of traumatic eardrum include: Traumatic eardrum may be accompanied by pain, bleeding, hearing loss, tinnitus and vertigo….

September 3, 2018
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