Dyspnea is subjective dyspnea. Breathing is perceived as unpleasant or stressful. It is different experienced by patients, depending on the cause and described. Pathophysiology Although dyspnea is a relatively common problem, the pathophysiology of the respiratory unpleasant feeling is poorly understood. Unlike other types of noxious stimuli, there are no specific receptors for dyspnea (although recent MRI studies have identified a few specific areas in the midbrain that can convey…

September 3, 2018