Campylobacter – And Related Infections

Campylobacter often causes diarrhea and occasional bacteremia, followed by endocarditis, osteomyelitis or septic arthritis.

Campylobacter sp. are movable curved, microaerophilic gram-negative rods belonging to the physiological flora of the gastrointestinal tract of many animals and poultry.

Campylobacter often causes diarrhea and occasional bacteremia, followed by endocarditis, osteomyelitis or septic arthritis. Campylobacter sp. are movable curved, microaerophilic gram-negative rods belonging to the physiological flora of the gastrointestinal tract of many animals and poultry. Different types are capable of triggering human diseases. The most common pathogens are C. jejuni and C. fetus. C. jejuni leads among all age groups of diarrhea, the peak incidence, however, appears to be between 1 and 5 years. C. jejuni causes together more diarrhea than Salmonella and Shigella in the US. C. fetus and various other can cause bacteremia and systemic manifestations typically in adults, especially when predisposing underlying diseases such. As diabetes, liver cirrhosis, cancer and HIV / AIDS are provided. In patients with lack of immunoglobulins these pathogens can cause infections difficult to be treated relapsing. C. jejuni can cause meningitis in newborns. The following were associated with outbreaks contact with infected animals (eg. As puppies) Contact with contaminated food or water (eg. As food handling) the ingestion of contaminated food (especially not through cooked poultry) or water A transmission between people by fecal-oral and sexual contacts may also occur. In some cases, however, the source of infection often remains hidden. Complications diarrhea caused by C. jejuni in connection with a subsequent development of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), because of cross-reaction between C. jejuni antibodies and the surface components of the peripheral nerves. Although estimated just a case of GBS per 2000 C. jejuni infections occur, had about 25 to 40% of patients who develop GBS, previously a C. jejuni infection. A Post-infectious (reactive) arthritis may occur with HLA-B27 positive patients a few days to several weeks after an episode of C. jejuni diarrhea. Other demyelinating complications include uveitis, hemolytic anemia, hemolytic uremic syndrome, myopericarditis, immunoproliferative small bowel disease, septic abortion and encephalopathy. Focal extraintestinal infections (eg. As endocarditis, meningitis, septic arthritis) occur rarely with C. jejuni, but are more often fetus with C.. Symptoms and signs The most common manifestation of Campylobacter infection is a watery and sometimes bloody diarrhea. The only constant feature of systemic Campylobacter infection is a recurrent or intermittent running fever (38-40 ° C), although abdominal pain also occur frequently (usually in the lower right quadrant), headache, and myalgia. Patients could also be of subacute bacterial endocarditis (often due to C. fetus) affected, septic arthritis, meningitis or indolent FUU. Joint involvement with reactive arthritis is monoarticular normally and affects the knees; the symptoms disappear spontaneously after a 1 week to several months. Diagnosis Sometimes stool culture, blood cultures for diagnosis, especially to differentiate Campylobacter infection from ulcerative colitis, a microbiological examination is required. It should stool cultures and examined in patients with signs of focal infection or severe systemic disease and blood cultures. In colored Stuhlausstrichen to leukocytes can be detected. Sometimes therapy erythromycin Most enteric infections heal spontaneously, if not, erythromycin 500 mg po can every 6 h be helpful for 5 days. Azithromycin 500 mg / kg p.o. once daily for 3 days is an alternative. Because the resistance to ciprofloxacin increases, this drug should be used carefully. In patients with extra-intestinal infections Antibiotikat should (z. B. Imipinem, gentamicin, ampicillin, a cephalosporin of the third generation, erythromycin) are given to prevent recurrences over 2-4 weeks.

Health Life Media Team

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