Biological Agents As Weapons

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have a priority list of biological agents and toxins created (see Table: CDC Biological agents and toxins with high priority). The highest priority is the category A.

The term biological warfare (BW) the use of microbiological agents for hostile purposes is understood. This application is contrary to international law and was rarely used during official wars of modern times, despite operated by most major powers in the 20th century intensive preparation and storage of biological weapons (including development of strains that are resistant to many drugs). The biggest threat is the use of BW by terrorist groups. BW agents are viewed by some as an ideal weapon for terrorists. These agents can be applied in secret, and have a delayed effect, allowing users to remain undetected. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have a priority list of biological agents and toxins created (see Table: CDC Biological agents and toxins with high priority). The highest priority is the category A. The conscious use of BW agents to cause mass casualties, probably would the spread of aerosols to cause disease by inhalation, entail and are inhaled pulmonary anthrax and pneumonic 2 diseases most likely to occur under these circumstances. CDC Biologicals high priority and toxins Category agents A: Top priority Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax, botulinum toxin from Clostridium botulinum that causes botulism Yersinia pestis causes plague variola virus, variola major causes (classical smallpox) Francisella tularensis causes tularemia Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) viruses Arena virus that causes Lassa fever and New World VHFs (Machupo, Junin, Guanarito, and Sabia hemorrhagic fever) Bunyaviridae that causes Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley fever Filoviridae causes Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus Illness Flaviviridae, caused yellow fever, Omsk hemorrhagic fever and Kyasanur forest disease. B: second highest priority Brucella sp causes brucellosis Epsilontoxin of Clostridium perfringens Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli 0157: H7 and Shigella, cause food poisoning Burkholderia mallei Glanders Burkholderia caused pseudomallei, causes melioidosis Chlamydia psittaci, Coxiella burnetii causing psittacosis, Q-fever caused Rizintoxin from Ricinus communis staphylococcal enterotoxin B Rickettsia prowazekii, causing typhoid fever Alpha viruses cause viral encephalitis (eg. B. Venezuelan, Eastern and Western equine encephalitis) Vibrio cholerae, Cryptosporidium parvum and other means to cause transmitted by water-borne diseases C: third highest priority Nipah virus, hantavirus, SARS coronavirus and influenza viruses an influenza pandemic cause Other agents associated with emerging infectious diseases CDC US Centers for disease Control and Prevention; SARS = severe acute respiratory syndrome. Detection Because it can be difficult to distinguish the use of BW from a natural outbreak of the disease. Evidence of the intentional and non-natural origin of a disease outbreak are the following: Cases of disease are not usually seen in the geographic area Unusual distribution of cases among the populations significantly different outbreak rates between the people inside and outside buildings separate outbreaks in geographically related fields Multiple simultaneous or serial outbreaks of various diseases in the same population unusual routes of exposure (eg. as inhalation) zoonosis occurs in humans and does not occur in animals on zoonosis only on humans and then at his typical vector zoonosis in an area with a low prevalence of the typical vector for this disease occurs unusual severity of He crane kung Unusual strains of infectious agents No ansorechen Epidemiologic to standard therapy investigation of cases and cooperation with law enforcement resources are crucial, as well as risk communication to the general public. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of patients with diseases of BW agents at high risk are discussed elsewhere in the Merck Manual: Anthrax (Anthrax), plague (Plague and Other Yersinia infections), smallpox (smallpox), tularemia (Tularemia ) and viral hemorrhagic fever (arboviruses, arenaviruses and filoviruses). The Behnandlung of outbreaks by BW does not differ from that of natural outbreaks, except that doctors for unusual antibiotic resistance patterns need to be vigilant. Insulation (of patients) and Quarantine (of contacts) may be required. Most intentionally spread smallpox transmitted diseases (for air-supported measures are required) and pneumonic (precautions for droplets are required). Reaction due to the relatively long incubation of diseases caused by BW agents are, that most people’s lives will be saved or lost in a hospital. Adequate supply of vaccines, antibiotics and antivirals for patients in hospital and contacts are required, and systems for the distribution of medical countermeasures for the general public at high risk of exposure are crucial. Reproduced in this article is the opinion of the author and not the official policy of the Department of Army, Department of Defense, or the US government.

Health Life Media Team

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