Many behaviors that show children and young people, worried parents or other adults. Behaviors are clinically of significance when they occur often or permanently or lead to poor adjustment (eg. As if they interfere with the emotional maturity, social skills or coping with everyday life). Severe behavioral disorders can be classified as mental disorders (for example, the oppositional disorder [opposition behavioral disorder] and the behavioral disorder;. Conduct disorder). The prevalence varies depending on how the behavior problem is defined and evaluated. Clarification The diagnosis consists of a multi-stage behavior assessment. In infants and children, most concerns relate to the body functions (eg. As eating, excretion, sleep), while in older children and adolescents more interpersonal ways of dealing are important (activities, disobedience, aggression). Identification of the problem A behavioral problem may be alarming and abrupt than single incident manifest (z. B. Fire Place, fight at school). Often the problems but are beginning to show, and to identify needs to be collected over a longer time information. The behavior can best be judged by the physical and mental development of the general health temperament (z. B. difficult calm) the relationships with parents and caregivers A direct observation of parent-child interaction in practice can provide valuable information, u. a. Also on parental response to the behavior of the child. These observations should, if possible, be complemented by information from other people, including teachers and school nurses. Parents or caregivers should be asked to present a chronological daily routine of the activities of a child on a typical day. Parents are asked to give examples of events that precede a specific behavior or follow. Parents should also be asked for their views on the following factors: Typical age-related behavior expectations for the child your own parenting style kind of support (eg social, emotional, financial.) To fulfill their parental role, the relationship of the child with the rest of family interpretation of the problem the child’s medical history may include factors where it is assumed that they promote the development of behavioral problems such. As drug exposure, pregnancy complications or serious illness or a loss in the family. Some problems affecting the parent-child relationship, and can be interpreted in several ways: Unrealistic parental expectations: For example, if parents expect a 2-year-old child can clean up toys without help. Parents interpret normal age-appropriate behavior as problematic, such as oppositional behavior (such as the refusal of a 2-year-olds, a requirement or order an adult to be followed). Poor quality of parent-child interactions: For example, children may have behavior problems less attentive parents. Excessively well-intentioned parental responses to a problem can this even worse (overprotection of a frightened, clutching the child or giving way to a manipulative child). Vicious circle: With younger children to face some problems as mechanisms of a vicious circle represents a negative parental reaction to a child’s behavior caused a hostile reaction of the child, and this in turn leads to a protracted negative parental reaction.. In this vicious circle Children often react to stress and emotional discomfort rather stubbornness, contradiction, aggressive and angry outbursts, as with wine. The parents respond in such a vicious cycle to an aggressive and resistant child with ranting, screaming and beating, the child then amplified the behavior that led to the first reaction of parents who, in turn, react much more violent. In older children and adolescents behavior problems can occur if the independence from parental rules and parental control is desired. Such problems must be distinguished from random errors in behavioral assessment. Treatment Is the behavior problem identified and known etiology, early intervention should be sought, as prolonged behaviors are difficult to change. The doctor assured the parents that the child is physically normal developed (eg. B. that the child’s misbehavior is not the manifestation of a physical illness). If the doctor identifies with parental frustration and represents the prevailing behavioral problems clearly, it can thus often relieve parental guilt and facilitate the search for possible causes as well as the treatment of problems. For simple problems an instruction of parents, tranquilizers and some special advice is often sufficient. Parents should be reminded of how important it is to get at least 15-20 minutes a day with their child to engage in a pleasant way, the attention should be on a reinforcement of the desired behavior of the child, according to the motto: “Dedicate yourself to the child even if it behaves well. ” Parents should also be encouraged to regularly spend some time without the child. Some problems, however, the parents of additional disciplinary and verhaltensmodifizierenden strategies can benefit. Parents can restrict affectionate and manipulative behavior of the child so that the mutual respect arises again. Desired and not desired behavior should be clearly defined. Consistent rules and boundaries should be set. Parents should check the compliance regularly, willing maintain appropriate rewards for good behavior and draw conclusions from an inappropriate behavior. Parents should keep their anger as low as possible, if they enforce rules and they should be the positive contact with their child intensify tips and risks Positive confirmation of appropriate behavior is an effective way without drawbacks. Parents to help to understand that “discipline” means structure and not punishment, allowing them to create the conditions and to have the expectations that their children need. Ineffective disciplinary measures can lead to wrongdoing. Scolding and physical punishment can control a child’s behavior in the short term, but also reduce security and self-esteem of a child. Threats to leave the child or send away it, only harm. The time-out technique (s. Time-out technique), with whom the child for a short time alone on a boring place sits (a corner or a room that is not the children’s room, a room with no television or toys, arousing the not dark or fear is), is a good way to change wrongdoing. Time-outs are learning for the child and are best used one or more times for misconduct. Physical fixation should be avoided. In children, escalate their reactions once they have a time-out is set, parents can quickly change the strategy if they realize that their children have recognized the border for their unwanted behavior. Time-out technique This disciplinary procedure is best if the children know that their actions were wrong or unacceptable, and when they see a withdrawal of attention as punishment. Typically this is the case only from the age of 2 years. It should be noted that this technique in the group, such as. As in day care, can lead to harmful humiliation. The method can be applied if a child behaves in a way that is usually a time-out leads. Normally verbal exhortations and memories should precede the time-out. The misconduct is the child initially explained. Then he is told that it is to sit down on the time-out chair or is out there. The child should sit on an appropriate time in the chair: one minute for every age, but a maximum of 5 minutes. A child who gets up before the set time has passed is returned to the chair, and the time-out is restarted. Speaking and eye contact should be avoided. When the time to get up for the child is there, the teacher asks for the reason for the time-out, without anger and nagging. A child who does not know the real reason is, just remembered. The child needs to show no remorse for wrongdoing, if it is obvious that the child has understood the reason for the time-out. After the time-out of the educator or caregiver should praise the child as soon as possible for good behavior. This is easier if the child receives a new activity or elsewhere goes. The vicious circle can be interrupted if the parents behavior that others do not interfere, ignore (z. B. the refusal to eat) and diversionary use or temporary isolation to limit behavior that can not be ignored, (public tantrums). A behavior problem that does not change within 3-4 months should be re-evaluated, a psychiatric evaluation may be necessary.